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An overview of the presidency of bao dai in vietnam in the 1950s

Government Constitutional Background The Socialist Republic of Vietnam has had four constitutions, adopted in 1946, 1959, 1980, and 1992; the current constitution was amended in 2001.

Regarding the development of the constitution it is crucial to bear in mind that, from the days of Ho Chi Minh's "declaration of independencetill the end of the 1970's, Vietnam was in a permanent state of war and restlessness, and still is in a phase of profound transformation that likewise affects state, politics, society, and economy.

These parameters are also reflected in the objectives and contents of the several constitutions each of which marks a certain step in the continuous shifting of the system. Following the revolution by its first president Ho Chi Minh 1945 and the war with the former colonial ruler France 1946-1954the Socialist Republic of Vietnam then called: Democratic Republic of Vietnam gained independence.

  • Crisis Phase September 2, 1945-December 18, 1946;
  • Meanwhile, the capitalist-oriented Republic of Vietnam in the south only survived through the massive financial and military aid of the United States while constantly failing to build a stable and democratically legitimized government.

In the 1950's, the north, under the leadership of the Communist Party, was transformed into a communist society and economy modeled on the Chinese and Soviet systems. Meanwhile, the capitalist-oriented Republic of Vietnam in the south only survived through the massive financial and military aid of the United States while constantly failing to build a stable and democratically legitimized government. Since the mid-fifties, a growing number of people in the southern rural areas became opposed to the authoritarian Saigon regime and formed a resistance movement which eventually was supported by Hanoi and, in 1960, consolidated in the National Liberation Front "Viet Cong.

In addition to the civil war in the south, a conventional war against the Communist regime commenced when the US, in response to the Tongking-incident 1964decided to bomb the northern territories and send ground troops to Vietnam. The American war produced heavy casualties estimated figures: After the withdrawal of the American troops 1973 and the fall of the Saigon regime 1975South Vietnam was reunited with North Vietnam in 1976.

The Communist regime subsequently extended its centrally planned economy and collectivization of land to the entire country. In 1979, the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia motivated China to send troops across the border against Hanoi.

  • President Harry Truman of the US provided military assistance 35 military advisors and economic assistance in support of the French government beginning on May 8, 1950;
  • Documents used as part of a lawsuit brought by 20,000 Vietnam veterans against several chemical companies reveal that Dow Chemical had full knowledge of the serious health risks posed by human exposure to dioxin, a chemical found in the herbicide Agent Orange;
  • Talks are slated to begin in Paris on May 10 with W.

In the early 1980's, due to its vast international isolation and the failure of the communist economic policy, Vietnam witnessed its most serious ever socio-economic crisis, the inflation rate rising up to a record 774. Vietnam became one of the poorest countries in the world. Since the political change of "Doi Moi" national renewal was initiated by the Communist Party on its 6th Congress in 1986 and affirmed by the 1992 and 2001 Constitutions, Vietnam has transformed from its isolated anachronistic communism to an internationally integrated post- socialism with an increasing orientation towards market economy.

With impressive success, the governmental regulation of the economy was reduced and the market was opened to foreign investments. Nevertheless, most of Vietnam's economy is still centrally planned and both land and natural resources remain to a large extent state-owned. However, in the meantime organizations and private individuals became entitled to acquire the right to land use and exploitation.

The high amount of corruption as recently documented in the Corruption Perception Index 2004 compiled by Transparency International remains both a big drawback for further economic growth and a reason for growing discontent and frustration among the people.

Ho Chi Minh

Up to the present, the basic functions of the Vietnamese Constitution have been to define and allocate the State powers, to determine policies for the future, and to sanction political and legal developments of the past for example, the "Doi Moi policy of 1986 was not rubber-stamped by constitutional law until 1992. Concerning the political system, the leadership of the Communist Party of Vietnam CPVthe socialist principle of power concentration, and the refusal of a pluralist multi-party-system yet remain unchallenged.

Other important institutions like the government, the administration and the army are subordinated to the CPV. It is also dominating state institutions and mass organizations, such as the Vietnam Fatherland Front and the Trade Union. However, the power and the self-assurance of the National Assembly have gradually increased since 1992. Chapter V of the constitution comprises the fundamental rights.

Based on the principle that the citizen's rights are inseparable from his duties Art. Due to the absence of constitutional and administrative courts and a lack of legal practice in constitutional matters, reliable and enforceable rights are rather found in simple laws and regulations than in the constitution itself. In practice, while economic freedoms were expanded, the guarantees of civil and political rights stay weak.

Ngo Dinh Diem, First President of South Vietnam

Vietnam is still being accused of suppressing political dissent and religious freedom. Domestic newspapers and television and radio stations remain under strict government control. Although journalists are occasionally able to report on corruption by government officials, direct criticism of the Party is forbidden.

True figures are believed to be much higher. History and News June 2005: Expatriate businessmen have ranked Vietnam the third most corrupt country in Asia after Indonesia and the Philippinesand the country with the second worst judicial system after Indonesiaaccording to a survey conducted by the Hong Kong-based consultancy group PERC.

Ordinance on Beliefs and Religions criticized by Human Rights Watch for strengthening government controls over religious activities. State Budget Law makes the National Assembly responsible for the approval of the budget, including allocations to lower levels of government. The Prime Minister issues a decree making the reporting and dissemination of statistics on the use of the death penalty a "state secret July 2002: Election for the XIth National Assembly officially announced participation: Beginning of bilateral negotiations for WTO accession.

The Xth National Assembly adopts amendments to the 1992 constitution at its 10th session. The rule of law is affirmed as a basic State principle Art. The "foreign-invested economic sectoris recognized as an integral part of the economic system Art. US-Vietnam bilateral trade agreement.

11. French Indochina/Vietnam (1941-1954)

US-President Clinton lifts trade embargo. Land Law guarantees transferability and inheritance of land entrusted by the State for long-time use; Environmental Protection Law. A new constitution is adopted and promulgated three days later.

It enhances the powers of the National Assembly as highest organ of state powerbut continues affirming the Communist Party's leadership over the State and the society as well as the principle of unified powers for the organization and operation of the State. As a corollary of the economic renewal of Moi, the constitution introduces a and multi-ownership market economy along the socialist orientation; private ownership is allowed alongside the State and collective sector Art.

Though individuals and organizations still do not have the right to own land Art. Official diplomatic relations with the European Community. Vietnam withdraws troops from Cambodia. Private corporations are legalized. Foreign Investment Law; peasant families are given the right of long-term land use. In response to the serious socio-economic crisis since the late 70's, the Communist Party of Vietnam initiates the "Doi MoiA new constitution is passed by the IVth National Assembly at its 7th session and promulgated one day later.

The leadership of the Communist Party and "the laboring people's collective mastery are inscribed for the first time. Regarding the economic regime, the 1980 Constitution only recognizes socialist economic sectors the state-run and the collective economic sector.

The organizational apparatus is heavily influenced by the state model of the former Soviet Union. Chinese troops invade Northern territories as a punitive measure. China cuts all ties with Vietnam. Vietnam becomes member of UNO.

The Cold War Museum

The National Assembly, at its first session, officially reunifies Vietnam Capital: Hanoirenames the country Socialist Republic of Vietnam and decides to elaborate a new constitution. Many people who supported the Saigon regime are sent to "re-education camps". Over the next years more than one million of Vietnamese and ethnic Chinese "boat people" flee the country.

The US extend their trade embargo against North Vietnam to the whole country. The US government commits itself to withdraw all American troops from Vietnam. Both Vietnamese regimes continue with hostile military operations. Kissinger and Le Duc begin secret peace talks. Gradual withdrawal of US troops.

Death of Ho Chi Minh officially dated on Sept 3 to avoid overlap with the day of the declaration of independence ; Le Duan becomes secretary general of the Communist Party.

US troop strength in Vietnam reaches peak of 543,500 men. Beginning of negotiations between Washington and Hanoi in Paris. Massacre by US troops in the village of My Lai. US troop numbers in Vietnam rise to 400,000, then to 500,000 the following year. Regular units of the North Vietnamese army begin infiltrating South Vietnam. Military coup of southern army generals against Ngo Dinh Diem opens a series of 8 coups within two years. Number of US military advisors in South Vietnam rises to 12,000.

Insurgent activity and assassinations in South Vietnam begin. US military advisors assume responsibility from the French for training South Vietnamese forces. President Ngo Dinh Diem begins campaign against an overview of the presidency of bao dai in vietnam in the 1950s and political dissidents, refuses to hold country-wide elections due to a supposed majority for Ho Chi Minh.

South Vietnam withdraws from the French Union. Vietnam is formally divided into two separate zones of North Democratic Republic of Vietnam, Capital: Hanoi and South Republic of Vietnam, Capital: Saigon along the 17th Parallel; the separation is described as provisional and national elections are scheduled for 1956.

French defeat at Dien Bien Phu. France reinstalls ex-emperor Bao Dai as the ruler of Vietnam. The document remains in effect in Viet Minh-controlled areas throughout the First Indochina War and in North Vietnam following the partition in 1954. The Japanese army capitulates; the Viet Minh come into power. Founding of the Viet Minh Alliance for Independence of Vietnama coalition of nationalist and communist groups. The French colonialist regime surrenders to the Japanese army; Japan allows the French Vichy administration to continue as a figurehead power.

Laos is added to Indochina.

  1. President Nixon publicly deplores the actions of the Guardsmen, but cautions. Mayor Richard Daley orders police to crackdown on antiwar protests.
  2. Land Law guarantees transferability and inheritance of land entrusted by the State for long-time use; Environmental Protection Law.
  3. University of Wisconsin students demand that corporate recruiters for Dow Chemical -- producers of napalm -- not be allowed on campus.

French colony of Cochin China. French troops capture Saigon.