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An overview of the jewish people struggles in the history

Abraham rejects idolatry, and declares the adherence of his people to a single incorporeal God, the creator and ruler of the universe and the source of moral law.

This covenant is renewed with his grandson Jacob, renamed 'Israel 'he who struggles with God', following a metaphorical wrestling with an angel. Moses receives the Torah, the first five books of the Bible, at Sinai.

It comprises both early history and law, including the Ten Commandments. The first Jewish Temple is built there by King Solomon.

C.1400 BCE

The later Prophetic books, including Jeremiah and Ezekiel, are written. Under the rule of the descendants of the Maccabees the Apocryphal books are written and the concept of Midrash Biblical commentary is developed.

The Sanhedrin and other Rabbinical Courts are established and rabbinical commentary on the law begins. This is the traditional date for the beginning of the Jewish dispersion.

The Romans celebrate their victory by erecting a triumphal arch, the Arch of Titus, which still stands in Rome.

The Arch shows Roman soldiers carrying sacred Jewish objects out of the Temple, including the seven-branched golden candlestick 'Menorah' which is described in the Bible. The Roman historian Cassius Dio records that 580,000 Jewish soldiers are killed and over 900 villages and towns destroyed.

The dispersion of the Jewish people as captives, slaves and refugees is accelerated. It takes the form of a logically organised code of Jewish law summarising rabbinical discussion over the previous centuries.

The post-Temple concept of synagogue worship and the form of the liturgy are also developed during this period. This continues until forced conversions to Islam begin in the twelfth century.

Jewish trade routes reach to India and China, and Jews are later invited to settle by emerging medieval kingdoms in Europe, including Norman England.

The Medieval rabbis in the Rhineland are very active in biblical commentary and the development of Jewish law, making important improvements in the status of women. As strangers and outsiders in Western Europe, they are oppressed by discriminatory laws and subjected to persecution, periodic expulsions and occasional slaughter. Jewish ghettos exist in Western Europe until the emancipation of the Jews in the nineteenth century.

Lithuanian and Polish rulers invite Jews to settle in eastern Europe, promising self-government and freedom from the ghettos. This is eventually followed by similar emancipation in Britain and the German states and most of Western Europe. Emancipation during the nineteenth century leads some Jews to seek to adapt Judaism to the prevailing European cultures.

History Crash Course #68: Timeline: From Abraham to the State of Israel

The laws are accompanied by 'pogroms', violent attacks on Jewish neighbourhoods. This movement translates the ancient and continuing religious longing for the restoration of the Jewish homeland into a practical program, commencing with the establishment of settlements in Turkish Palestine in the 1880s.

Zionism becomes an international political movement with the first World Zionist Congress of 1897.

Anti-Jewish laws are introduced in 1935. By 1945 six million Jews have been murdered in Europe in conditions of unprecedented atrocity. Israel is now regarded as central to Jewish life and identity. Many come to Australia, where the Jewish population increases from 23,000 in 1933 to 60,000 in 1960 to about 110,000 by 2008. About 1,000,000 arrive in Israel.