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An overview of the censorship and the act or policy of censoring of the internet

  • Google's general Terms of Service, which were updated on 1 March 2012, state;
  • Providers are also responsible for erasing all prohibited content posted on their Web sites, including online chatrooms and bulletin boards.

It may be carried out by governments or by private organizations either at the behest of government or on their own initiative. Individuals and organizations may engage in self-censorship on their own or due to intimidation and fear. The issues associated with Internet censorship are similar to those for offline censorship of more traditional media. One difference is that national borders are more permeable online: Thus censors must work to prevent access to information even though they lack physical or legal control over the websites themselves.

This in turn requires the use of technical censorship methods that are unique to the Internet, such as site blocking and content filtering. Pseudonymity and data havens such as Freenet protect free speech using technologies that guarantee material cannot be removed and prevents the identification of authors.

Technologically savvy users can often find ways to access blocked content. Nevertheless, blocking remains an effective means of limiting access to sensitive information for most users when censors, such as those in Chinaare able to devote significant resources to building and maintaining a comprehensive censorship system.

A 1993 Time Magazine article quotes computer scientist John Gillmoreone of the founders of the Electronic Frontier Foundationas saying "The Net interprets censorship as damage and routes around it. The head of the polling organization felt, overall, that the poll showed that: Despite worries about privacy and fraud, people around the world see access to the internet as their fundamental right.

The most notable of these social media led protests were parts Arab Spring uprisingsstarting in 2010.

Internet censorship

In response to the use of social media in these protests, the Tunisian government began a hack of Tunisian citizens' Facebook accounts, and reports arose of accounts being deleted. This most notably occurs in Chinawhere social media posts are automatically censored depending on content. In 2013, Harvard political science professor Gary King led a study to determine what caused social media posts to be censored and found that posts mentioning the government were not more or less likely to be deleted if they were supportive or critical of the government.

Posts mentioning collective action were more likely to be deleted than those that had not mentioned collective action. For the Chinese government, seeing citizens unhappy with local governance is beneficial as state and national leaders can replace unpopular officials. King and his researchers were able to predict when certain officials would be removed based on the number of unfavorable social media posts.

Video game censorship and List of regionally censored video games Since the early 1980s, advocates of video games have emphasized their use as an expressive mediumarguing for their protection under the laws governing freedom of speech and also as an educational tool.

Detractors argue that video games are harmful and therefore should be subject to legislative oversight and restrictions. Many video games have certain elements removed or edited due to regional rating standards. Decapitation scenes are implied, but not shown. Scenes of missing body parts after having been cut off, are replaced with the same scene, but showing the body parts fully intact. SurveillanceMass surveillanceand Computer and network surveillance Surveillance and censorship are different.

  • In July 2000, it was reported that the German government had ceased trying to bar access to content outside Germany but police would continue to aim to stop illegal "homegrown" material;
  • Access to the Internet may be limited due to a lack of the necessary infrastructure, deliberate or not;
  • In Canada, film and video classifications are province-based.

Surveillance can be performed without censorship, but it is harder to engage in censorship without some form of surveillance. The Glavlit handled censorship matters arising from domestic writings of just about any kind—even beer and vodka labels. Glavlit censorship personnel were present in every large Soviet publishing house or newspaper; the agency employed some 70,000 censors to review information before it was disseminated by publishing houses, editorial offices, and broadcasting studios.

No mass medium escaped Glavlit's control.

  1. But the notion of "community" becomes blurred with the advent of the Internet as the geographic area of the Internet is nonexistent. However, to the best of EFA's knowledge, governments in these countries have not enacted or indicated any intent to enact, Internet censorship legislation as restrictive of adults' freedom of expression, as that existing and proposed in Australia.
  2. Data retention legislation is introduced in Congress. This Bill, if it had been passed without amendments, would have required Internet Service Providers to, among other things, block adults' access to content on sites outside Australia on threat of fines for non-compliance.
  3. The group relies in part on software developed to read unique electronic codes, making it possible for law enforcement to monitor file-sharing networks. Canada In August 1998, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission CRTC called for public discussion on what role - if any - it should have in regulating matters such as online pornography, hate speech, and "Canadian content" on the Web.

All press agencies and radio and television stations had Glavlit representatives on their editorial staffs. The authorities taking such action will justify it by declaring the work to be " subversive " or "inconvenient".

Censorship

An example is Michel Foucault 's 1978 text Sexual Morality and the Law later republished as The Danger of Child Sexualityoriginally published as La loi de la pudeur [literally, "the law of decency"]. This work defends the decriminalization of statutory rape and the abolition of age of consent laws. This practice became known in the early 2000s as privishing private publishing.

In a 1997 essay on Internet censorship, social commentator Michael Landier claims that censorship is counterproductive as it prevents the censored topic from being discussed. Landier expands his argument by claiming that those who impose censorship must consider what they censor to be true, as individuals believing themselves to be correct would welcome the opportunity to disprove those with opposing views.

Forster was a staunch opponent of censoring material on the grounds that it was obscene or immoral, raising the issue of moral subjectivity and the constant changing of moral values. When the novel Lady Chatterley's Lover was put on trial in 1960Forster wrote: I do not think that it could be held obscene, but am in a difficulty here, for the reason that I have never been able to follow the legal definition of obscenity.

A Selective Timeline of the Internet and Censorship

The law tells me that obscenity may deprave and corrupt, but as far as I know, it offers no definition of depravity or corruption. Censorship by country Censorship by country collects information on censorship, internet censorshippress freedomfreedom of speechand human rights by country and presents it in a sortable table, together with links to articles with more information.

In addition to countries, the table includes information on former countries, disputed countries, political sub-units within countries, and regional organizations.