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An introduction to feasible ways in which humans can combine

Discuss the common components and characteristics of problems. Explain the five steps of the group problem-solving process.

Describe the brainstorming and discussion that should take place before the group makes a decision. Compare and contrast the different decision-making techniques. Discuss the various influences on decision making. Instead, we start working on a problem and later realize we are lost and have to backtrack. In this section, we will discuss the group problem-solving process, methods of decision making, and influences on these processes.

  • But the exploitation of renewable sources such as fuelwood and hydropower also entails ecological problems;
  • The key questions concerning any proposed new technology should include the following;
  • The integration of economic and ecological factors into the law and into decision making systems within countries has to be matched at the international level;
  • After the brainstorming session is over, group members can eliminate without evaluating ideas that are the same or very similar;
  • When the environmental impact of a proposed project is particularly high, public scrutiny of the case should be mandatory and, wherever feasible, the decision should be subject to prior public approval, perhaps by referendum;
  • But the process must be accelerated to reduce per capita consumption and encourage a shift to non polluting sources and technologies.

Group Problem Solving The problem-solving process involves thoughts, discussions, actions, and decisions that occur from the first consideration of a problematic situation to the goal.

The problems that groups face are varied, but some common problems include budgeting funds, raising funds, planning events, addressing customer or citizen complaints, creating or adapting products or services to fit needs, supporting members, and raising awareness about issues or causes. Even though it may only be a vague idea, there is a drive to better the undesirable situation. The vague idea may develop into a more precise goal that can be achieved, although solutions are not yet generated.

Obstacles between undesirable and desirable situation. This component of a problem requires the most work, and it is the part where decision making occurs. Some examples of obstacles include limited funding, resources, personnel, time, or information. Obstacles can also take the form of people who are working against the group, including people resistant to change or people who disagree. Discussion of these three elements of a problem helps the group tailor its problem-solving process, as each problem will vary.

While these three general elements are present in each problem, the group should also address specific characteristics of the problem. Difficult tasks are also typically more complex. Groups should be prepared to spend time researching and discussing a difficult and complex task in order to develop an introduction to feasible ways in which humans can combine shared foundational knowledge. This typically requires individual work outside of the group and frequent group meetings to share information.

Number of possible solutions. There are usually multiple ways to solve a problem or complete a task, but some problems have more potential solutions than others. Figuring out how to prepare a beach house for an approaching hurricane is fairly complex and difficult, but there are still a limited number of things to do—for example, taping and boarding up windows; turning off water, electricity, and gas; trimming trees; and securing loose outside objects. Other problems may be more creatively based.

For example, designing a new restaurant may entail using some standard solutions but could also entail many different types of innovation with layout and design. Group member interest in problem. When group members are interested in the problem, they will be more engaged with the problem-solving process and invested in finding a quality solution.

Groups with high interest in and knowledge about the problem may want more freedom to develop and implement solutions, while groups with low interest may prefer a leader who provides structure and direction. Group familiarity with problem. Some groups encounter a problem regularly, while other problems are more unique or unexpected.

A family who has lived in an introduction to feasible ways in which humans can combine alley for decades probably has a better idea of how to prepare its house for a hurricane than does a family that just recently moved from the Midwest.

Many groups that rely on funding have to revisit a budget every year, and in recent years, groups have had to get more creative with budgets as funding has been cut in nearly every sector.

Need for solution acceptance. Some small groups have many stakeholders on whom the success of a solution depends. Other groups are answerable only to themselves. When a small group is planning on building a new park in a crowded neighborhood or implementing a new policy in a large business, it can be very difficult to develop solutions that will be accepted by all.

In such cases, groups will want to poll those who will be affected by the solution and may want to do a pilot implementation to see how people react.

Could you mix human and animal genes?

Group problem solving can be a confusing puzzle unless it is approached systematically. As you read through the steps in the process, think about how you can apply what we learned regarding the general and specific elements of problems.

Some of the following steps are straightforward, and they are things we would logically do when faced with a problem. However, taking a deliberate and systematic approach to problem solving has been shown to benefit group functioning and performance. A deliberate approach is especially beneficial for groups that do not have an established history of working together and will only be able to meet occasionally.

Although a group should attend to each step of the process, group leaders or other group members who facilitate problem solving should be cautious not to dogmatically follow each element of the process or force a group along.

  1. The history of AI has had cycles of success, misplaced optimism, and resulting cutbacks in enthusiasm and funding.
  2. Kat - Yeah, things like flatworms, salamanders, all those kind of things.
  3. Hence it will be necessary to turn to methods that produce more fish, fuelwood, and forest products under controlled conditions.
  4. Once we have a sufficiently precise theory of the mind, it becomes possible to express the theory as a computer program.
  5. Some groups encounter a problem regularly, while other problems are more unique or unexpected.

Define the Problem Define the problem by considering the three elements shared by every problem: At this stage, group members share what they know about the current situation, without proposing solutions or evaluating the information. Here are some good questions to ask during this stage: What is the current difficulty?

Group Problem Solving

How did we come to know that the difficulty exists? What have the effects been so far?

  • The cumulative effect of individual decisions can have as great an impact on the large-scale use of technology as pressure on public decisions can;
  • Other problems may be more creatively based;
  • Technology has strongly influenced the course of history and the nature of human society, and it continues to do so;
  • Why do you think people tasked with a group presentation especially students prefer to divide the parts up and have members work on them independently before coming back together and integrating each part?
  • When the environmental impact of a proposed project is particularly high, public scrutiny of the case should be mandatory and, wherever feasible, the decision should be subject to prior public approval, perhaps by referendum.

What, if any, elements of the difficulty require clarification? At the end of this stage, the group should be able to compose a single sentence that summarizes the problem called a problem statement. Avoid wording in the problem statement or question that hints at potential solutions. A small group formed to investigate ethical violations of city officials could use the following problem statement: To fully analyze the problem, the group can discuss the five common problem variables discussed before.

Here are two examples of questions that the group formed to address ethics violations might ask: Do cities of similar size have such a mechanism? Once the problem has been analyzed, the group can pose a problem question that will guide the group as it generates possible solutions. Generate Possible Solutions During this step, group members generate possible solutions to the problem. Again, solutions should not be evaluated at this point, only proposed and clarified. The question should be what could we do to address this problem, not what should we do to address it.

Since many problems are multifaceted, it is necessary for group members to generate solutions for each part of the problem separately, making sure to have multiple solutions for each part. Stopping the solution-generating process prematurely can lead to groupthink.

For the problem question previously posed, the group would need to generate solutions for all three parts of the problem included in the question. Possible solutions for the first part of the problem How can citizens report ethical violations?

Possible solutions for the second part of the problem How will reports be processed? Possible solutions for the third part of the problem How an introduction to feasible ways in which humans can combine reports be addressed?

An introduction to feasible ways in which humans can combine

Evaluate Solutions During this step, solutions can be critically evaluated based on their credibility, completeness, and worth. Groups that are required to report the rationale for their decision or whose decisions may be subject to public scrutiny would be wise to make a set list of criteria for evaluating each solution.

Decision making is part of the larger process of problem solving and it plays a prominent role in this step. While there are several fairly similar models for problem solving, there are many varied decision-making techniques that groups can use. For example, to narrow the list of proposed solutions, group members may decide by majority vote, by weighing the pros and cons, or by discussing them until a consensus is reached.

Once the final decision is reached, the group leader or facilitator should confirm that the group is in agreement. It may be beneficial to let the group break for a while or even to delay the final decision until a later meeting to allow people time to evaluate it outside of the group context. Implement and Assess the Solution Implementing the solution requires some advanced planning, and it should not be rushed unless the group is operating under strict time restraints or delay may lead to some kind of harm.

Although some solutions can be implemented immediately, an introduction to feasible ways in which humans can combine may take days, months, or years. As was noted earlier, it may be beneficial for groups to poll those who will be affected by the solution as to their opinion of it or even to do a pilot test to observe the effectiveness of the solution and how people react to it. If the group disbands after implementation, who will be responsible for assessing the solution?

If the solution fails, will the same group reconvene or will a new group be formed? Certain elements of the solution may need to be delegated out to various people inside and outside the group. Group members may also be assigned to implement a particular part of the solution based on their role in the decision making or because it connects to their area of expertise.

Last, the group should consider its future. In some cases, the group will get to decide if it will stay together and continue working on other tasks or if it will disband.

  1. Some large-scale projects, however, require participation on a different basis.
  2. In such instances, the proposed solution may be to ban the burial of toxic wastes in community dumps, or to prohibit the use of leaded gasoline and asbestos insulation.
  3. Generate Possible Solutions During this step, group members generate possible solutions to the problem.
  4. We are the gate-keepers of success or failure to husband our resources.

Although having more people involved in a presentation increases logistical difficulties and has the potential to create more conflict, a well-prepared and well-delivered group presentation can be more engaging and effective than a typical presentation. The main problems facing a group giving a presentation are 1 dividing responsibilities, 2 coordinating schedules and time management, and 3 working out the logistics of the presentation delivery. In terms of dividing responsibilities, assigning individual work at the first meeting and then trying to fit it all together before the presentation which is what many college students do when faced with a group project is not the recommended method.

Taking the time to complete one part of the presentation together can help set those standards for later individual work. From the beginning, it should be clearly communicated that the group needs to spend considerable time in face-to-face meetings, and group members should know that they may have to make an occasional sacrifice to attend. Especially important is the commitment to scheduling time to rehearse the presentation.

Group presentations require members to navigate many logistics of their presentation. While it may be easier for a group to assign each member to create a five-minute segment and then transition from one person to the next, this is definitely not the most engaging method. Once the content of the presentation is complete, figure out introductions, transitions, visual aids, and the use of time and space Stanton, 2012.

14.3 Problem Solving and Decision Making in Groups

In terms of introductions, figure out if one person will introduce all the speakers at the beginning, if speakers will introduce themselves at the beginning, or if introductions will occur as the presentation progresses.

In terms of transitions, make sure each person has included in his or her speaking notes when presentation duties switch from one person to the next. Practicing with visual aids and having one person control them may help prevent this. Also consider the size and layout of the presentation space. Why do you think people tasked with a group presentation especially students prefer to divide the parts up and have members work on them independently before coming back together and integrating each part?

What problems emerge from this method? In what ways might developing a master presentation and then assigning parts to different speakers be better than the more divided method?

What are the drawbacks to the master presentation method?