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An examination of the features of benthams act utilitarianism

Basic concepts In the notion of consequences the utilitarian includes all of the good and bad produced by the act, whether arising after the act has been performed or during its performance. If the difference in the consequences of alternative acts is not great, some utilitarians do not regard the choice between them as a moral issue.

According to Mill, acts should be classified as morally right or wrong only if the consequences are of such significance that a person would wish to see the agent compelled, not merely persuaded and exhorted, to act in the preferred manner. In assessing the consequences of actions, utilitarianism relies upon some theory of intrinsic value: Bentham and Mill were hedonists ; i.

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Utilitarians also assume that it is possible to compare the intrinsic values produced by two alternative actions and to estimate which would have better consequences. Bentham believed that a hedonic calculus is theoretically possible.

A moralist, he maintained, could sum up the units of pleasure and the units of pain for everyone likely an examination of the features of benthams act utilitarianism be affected, immediately and in the future, and could take the balance as a measure of the overall good or evil tendency of an action.

Such precise measurement as Bentham envisioned is perhaps not essential, but it is nonetheless necessary for the utilitarian to make some interpersonal comparisons of the values of the effects of alternative courses of action. Methodologies As a normative system providing a standard by which an individual ought to act and by which the existing practices of society, including its moral code, ought to be evaluated and improved, utilitarianism cannot be verified or confirmed in the way in which a descriptive theory can, but it is not regarded by its exponents as simply arbitrary.

Bentham and Mill both believed that human actions are motivated entirely by pleasure and pain, and Mill saw that motivation as a basis for the argument that, since happiness is the sole end of human action, the promotion of happiness is the test by which to judge all human conduct.

In addition, he reasoned that utilitarianism could solve the difficulties and perplexities that arise from the vagueness and inconsistencies of commonsense doctrines. Most opponents of utilitarianism have held that it has implications contrary to their moral intuitions—that considerations of utility, for example, might sometimes sanction the breaking of a promise.

Some utilitarians, however, have sought to modify the utilitarian theory to account for the objections. Criticisms One such criticism is that, although the widespread practice of lying and stealing would have bad consequences, resulting in a loss of trustworthiness and security, it is not certain that an occasional lie to avoid embarrassment or an occasional theft from a rich person would not have good consequences and thus be permissible or even required by utilitarianism.

But the utilitarian readily answers that the widespread practice of such acts would result in a loss of trustworthiness and security. It permits a particular act on a particular occasion to be adjudged right or wrong according to whether it is in accordance with or in violation of a useful rule, and a rule is judged useful or not by the consequences of its general practice. Another objection, often posed against the hedonistic value theory held by Bentham, holds that the value of life is more than a balance of pleasure over pain.

Mill, in contrast to Bentham, discerned differences an examination of the features of benthams act utilitarianism the quality of pleasures that make some intrinsically preferable to others independently of intensity and duration the quantitative dimensions recognized by Bentham. Some philosophers in the utilitarian tradition have recognized certain wholly nonhedonistic values without losing their utilitarian credentials.

Thus, the English philosopher G. Even in limiting the recognition of intrinsic value and disvalue to happiness and unhappiness, some philosophers have argued that those feelings cannot adequately be further broken down into terms of pleasure and pain and have thus preferred to defend the theory in terms of maximizing happiness and minimizing unhappiness. It is important to note, however, that, even for the hedonistic utilitarians, pleasure and pain are not thought of in purely sensual terms; pleasure and pain for them can be components of experiences of all sorts.

Their claim is that, if an experience is neither pleasurable nor painful, then it is a matter of indifference and has no intrinsic value. Another objection to utilitarianism is that the prevention or elimination of suffering should take precedence over any alternative act that would only increase the happiness of someone already happy. Historical survey The ingredients of utilitarianism are found in the history of thought long before Bentham. Antecedents of utilitarianism among the ancients A hedonistic theory of the value of life is found in the early 5th century bce in the ethics of Aristippus of Cyrene, founder of the Cyrenaic school, and a century later in that of Epicurusfounder of an ethic of retirement see Epicureanismand their followers in ancient Greece.

The seeds of ethical universalism are found in the doctrines of the rival ethical school of Stoicism and in Christianity. Growth of classical English utilitarianism In the history of British philosophy, some historians have identified Bishop Richard Cumberlanda 17th-century moral philosopher, as the first to have a utilitarian philosophy.

Bentham himself said that he discovered the principle of utility in the 18th-century writings of various thinkers: Another strand of utilitarian thought took the form of a theological ethics.

Examine the key features of utilitarianism and its strengths and weaknesses of utilitarianism

Bentham, who apparently believed that an individual in governing his own an examination of the features of benthams act utilitarianism would always seek to maximize his own pleasure and minimize his own pain, found in pleasure and pain both the cause of human action and the basis for a normative criterion of action. For Bentham, the greatest happiness of the greatest number would play a role primarily in the art of legislationin which the legislator would seek to maximize the happiness of the entire community by creating an identity of interests between each individual and his fellows.

By laying down penalties for mischievous acts, the legislator would make it unprofitable for a person to harm his neighbour. Bentham attracted as his disciples a number of younger early 19th-century intellectuals. James Mill argued for representative government and universal male suffrage on utilitarian grounds; he and other followers of Bentham were advocates of parliamentary reform in England in the early 19th century.

John Stuart Mill was a spokesman for woman suffragestate-supported education for all, and other proposals that were considered radical in their day. He argued on utilitarian grounds for freedom of speech and expression and for the noninterference of government or society in individual behaviour that did not harm anyone else. In it utilitarianism is viewed as an ethics for ordinary individual behaviour as well as for legislation. John Stuart Mill, 1884.

Library of Congress, Washington, D. LC-USZ62-76491 Utilitarianism since the late 19th century By the time Sidgwick wrote, utilitarianism had become one of the foremost ethical theories of the day.

His Methods of Ethics 1874a comparative examination of egoism, the ethics of common sense, and utilitarianism, contains the most careful discussion to be found of the implications of utilitarianism as a principle of individual moral action. BBC Hulton Picture Library The 20th century saw the development of various modifications and complications of the utilitarian theory.

Moore argued for a set of ideals extending beyond hedonism by proposing that one imaginatively compare universes in which there are equal quantities of pleasure but different amounts of knowledge, friendship, beauty, and other such combinations.

He felt that he could not be indifferent toward such differences.

  • LC-USZ62-76491 Utilitarianism since the late 19th century By the time Sidgwick wrote, utilitarianism had become one of the foremost ethical theories of the day;
  • Methodologies As a normative system providing a standard by which an individual ought to act and by which the existing practices of society, including its moral code, ought to be evaluated and improved, utilitarianism cannot be verified or confirmed in the way in which a descriptive theory can, but it is not regarded by its exponents as simply arbitrary;
  • For Bentham, the greatest happiness of the greatest number would play a role primarily in the art of legislation , in which the legislator would seek to maximize the happiness of the entire community by creating an identity of interests between each individual and his fellows;
  • Urmson; and by the analysis by John Rawls , a Harvard political philosopher, of the significance for utilitarianism of two different conceptions of moral rules.

Urmson; and by the analysis by John Rawlsa Harvard political philosopher, of the significance for utilitarianism of two different conceptions of moral rules. Smarta British Australian philosopher. Effects of utilitarianism in other fields The influence of utilitarianism has been widespread, permeating the intellectual life of the last two centuries. Its significance in lawpolitics, and economics is especially notable. According to the utilitarian, the rationale of punishment is entirely to prevent further crime by either reforming the criminal or protecting society from him and to deter others from crime through fear of punishment.

In its political philosophyutilitarianism bases the authority of government and the sanctity of individual rights upon their utility, thus providing an alternative to theories of natural lawnatural rights, or social contract. What kind of government is best thus becomes a question of what kind of government has the best consequences—an assessment that requires factual premises regarding human nature and behaviour.

Generally, utilitarians have supported democracy as a way of making the interest of government coincide with the general interest; they have argued for the greatest individual liberty compatible with an equal liberty for others on the ground that individuals are generally the best judges of their own welfare; and they have believed in the possibility and desirability of progressive social change through peaceful political processes.

With different factual assumptions, however, utilitarian arguments can lead to different conclusions. On an examination of the features of benthams act utilitarianism other hand, William Godwinan English political philosopher of the early 19th century, assumed the basic goodness of human nature and argued that the greatest happiness would follow from a radical alteration of society in the direction of anarchism.

Classical economics received some of its most important statements from utilitarian writers, especially David Ricardo and John Stuart Mill.

Ironically, its theory of economic value was framed primarily in terms of the cost of labour in production rather than in terms of the use value, or utility, of commodities. Later developments more clearly reflected the utilitarian philosophy. As a movement for the reform of social institutions, 19th-century utilitarianism was remarkably successful in the long run. Most of its recommendations were implemented unless abandoned by the reformers themselves, and, equally important, utilitarian arguments were commonly employed to advocate institutional or policy changes.

Summary and evaluation As an abstract ethical doctrine, utilitarianism has established itself as one of the small number of live options that must be taken into account and either refuted or accepted by any philosopher taking a position in normative ethics. Utilitarianism now appears in various modified and complicated formulations.

  1. With different factual assumptions, however, utilitarian arguments can lead to different conclusions.
  2. If one act requires a longer period of time for its performance than another, one may ask whether they can be considered alternatives. In addition, he reasoned that utilitarianism could solve the difficulties and perplexities that arise from the vagueness and inconsistencies of commonsense doctrines.
  3. Even what is to count as an act is not a matter of philosophical consensus.

In the 20th century, philosophers noticed further problems in the utilitarian procedures. One of them, for example, was with the process of identifying the consequences of an act—a process that raises conceptual as well as practical problems as to what are to be counted as consequences, even without precisely quantifying the value of those consequences.

For example, the question may arise whether the outcome of an election is a consequence of each and every vote cast for the winning candidate if he receives more than the number necessary for election, and, in estimating the value of the consequences, one may ask whether the entire value or only a part of the value of the outcome of the election is to be assigned to each vote.

There is also difficulty in the procedure of comparing alternative acts. If one act requires a longer period of time for its performance than another, one may ask whether they can be considered alternatives.

Even what is to count as an act is not a matter of philosophical consensus. These problems, however, are common to almost all normative ethical theories, since most of them recognize the consequences—including the hedonic consequences—of an act as being relevant ethical considerations.

The central insight of utilitarianism, that one ought to promote happiness and prevent unhappiness whenever possible, seems undeniable. The critical question, however, is whether the whole of normative ethics can be analyzed in terms of this simple formula.