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An argument in favor of the right to smoke in the united states

Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. December 2015 The universal no-smoking symbol is frequently ignored in mainland China On May 20, 2009, the Ministry of Health of China issued a formal decision to completely ban smoking in all health administration offices and medical facilities by the year 2011. However, due to the Chinese government's complex relationship with tobacco policy for instance, many localities rely upon tobacco tax revenue as a substantial source of income[6] there have been many concerns about the practicality of the national policy's enforcement.

In addition to the May 20 measure, numerous provincial and city-level administrations in China have also enacted policies to control the prevalence and health impacts of smoking within the last decade.

Ministry of Health Report[ edit ] Prior to enacting the nationwide smoking ban, the Ministry of Health had already maintained active involvement in decrying the negative effects of smoking and striving toward decreased prevalence of tobacco use.

Smoking in China

Among smokers, the polls found that 93. Because tobacco remains a significant source of both health risks and revenue for municipal and national governing entities, [6] specific Chinese tobacco control policies in different contexts may betray an overall position of ambivalence or inconsistency.

In practice, it is often the case that only some government offices, schools, museums, some hospitals, and sports venues effectively function as smoke-free areas. Some of them even smoke boldly in hospitals or schools. Smoking cessation is "relatively uncommon in China, and most smokers quit cigarette smoking because of chronic illness. The announcement said smoking scenes are out of line with the country's stance on tobacco control, and are misleading to the public, especially minors.

Thus it is prohibiting scenes of cigarette brands, people smoking at smoke-free places, minors buying and smoking cigarettes, and other smoking scenes associated with minors. After the announcement was done, the ban was effective immediately.

The Shanghai People's Congress issued the city's first smoking control law in March 2010. The law bans smoking in 12 types of public places including indoor smoking at schools, hospitals, sport stadiums, public transport vehicles and Internet cafes.

Anyone caught smoking would first be given a warning and then face a fine of 50 to 200 yuan if they resist. According to Li Zhongyang, the deputy head of the Shanghai Health Promotion Committee, the smoking ban was enacted to protect citizens' health and also promote Shanghai's image as a cosmopolitan city. According to one citizen that the public health experts from Fudan interviewed, "Smoking has been banned in public places in several countries.

We should do the same, at least during the Expo, since it is a cosmopolitan event.


And of course, for the sake of the public who would be visiting. Shanghai residents point out that despite the fact many shopping malls and all subways and subway stations actually already banned smoking prior to this law, there is low compliance and people often smoke directly in front of NO SMOKING signs.

Public health experts agree that it will be difficult to enforce a strict ban with the large number of smokers present in Shanghai. Beijing[ edit ] In light of the passage of national tobacco initiatives and international publicity for the 2008 Summer Olympicsthe Beijing city government extended a public smoking ban on May 1, 2008 to include sports venues and all indoor areas of government offices, transport stations, schools and hospitals.

In the first week of this month, the Beijing fire brigade put out eight cigarette-related fires, an average of 1. The new daily average [after the extended smoking ban] was less than half of what was reported in the first four months of this year, when the city's firefighters had to put out 325 fires caused by cigarette butts, or 2.

However, by March 2010, the Guangzhou Municipal People's Congress prepared to lift the smoking ban in work places, including offices, conference rooms and auditoriums. This decision was reversed after public outcry and coverage by international press.

  • Advanced Search Abstract Smoking is disproportionately common among the disadvantaged, both within many countries and globally; the burden associated with smoking is, therefore, borne to a great extent by the disadvantaged;
  • Finally, it is important to note that smoking is particularly prevalent not just in socially disadvantaged populations but also among individuals with mental health problems.

Other cities[ edit ] Hangzhou 's people's congress had approved to ban smoking in public and working places in the beginning of 2010; smoking may be prohibited in some places and violators may be fined up to 3000 yuan.

According to Medical News Today, seven provincial capitals in China are taking steps to ban smoking in workplaces and public places.

  1. Australian adult smoking prevalence in 1992.
  2. A Journal of Policy Analysis and Reform 2011;18 2.. Tobacco Institute of Australia.
  3. Smoking Norms and the Social Meaning of Smoking. Oxford University Press, 2000.
  4. Tobacco control policies in developing countries.

Although there are already some smoking bans in places in these cities, government officials have realized that compliance rate is low and plans to issue a strict ban. Responding to criticism about the current legislation not being well enforced, Wang Yu, director of the China CDC explained that "This project would create strict legislation to guarantee 100-percent smoke-free public venues and workplaces and figure out a feasible and forceful working mechanism to enforce the smoking ban. The practice is controversial because some believe that medical professionals should serve as role models of healthy behavior to their patients, while others believe that doctors should have the right to smoke because it is a personal matter.

More than one third of current smokers had smoked in front of their patients and nearly all had smoked during their work shift. Chinese physicians have a substantially higher smoking prevalence than doctors in the United States 3. They have a slightly higher rate than Japanese physicians 20. In Chinese culturesmoking is connected to masculine identity as a social activity that is practiced among men to promote feelings of acceptance and brotherhood, which explains why more Chinese male doctors smoke than females.

Furthermore, physicians in particular may resort to tobacco as a coping mechanism to deal with the day-to-day stress that is associated with long work hours and difficult patient interactions.

Smoking is such a big part of being a doctor here. The director of our hospital smokes. The chair of my department smokes. And whenever I walk into the duty office, most of my colleagues are smoking. And to tell you the truth, with such a pressure-filled job, smoking is extremely helpful, at times soothing, at times energizing, at times helping me focus my attention when preparing for a complex surgery or facing a stack of paperwork 10: Doctors who smoked were less likely to believe that smoking has a harmful effect on health compared to nonsmokers.

Arguments in favor of physicians' choice to smoke[ edit ] It may be argued that as responsible and informed adults, Chinese physicians should be given the choice of whether or not to smoke. Their backgrounds in science and medicine enable them to know more about the effects of smoking on the body compared to the general public, so a decision they make about tobacco may be more educated.

Furthermore, smoking can be considered a personal matter that should not be relevant to the workplace. Some have suggested that so long as a cigarette does not interfere an argument in favor of the right to smoke in the united states a physician's ability to diagnose and treat patients, smoking should be permitted among health care practitioners.

In fact, Chinese physicians who smoke may be able to form closer relationships with patients because of tobacco's role in the local culture as a commodity that promotes unity and friendship.

Many believe that doctors should serve as exemplars, as sources of information about quitting, and as providers of support and encouragement for those who are trying to live healthier lives by giving up cigarettes.

Alternatively, smoking cessation advice offered by a doctor who smokes may seem hypocritical to the patient trying to quit.

Smokefree Policies Improve Health

An economic motivation against physician smoking may be the societal loss that is caused by tobacco use. The resources that are spent on medical school and hospital training might not be realized fully if physicians die prematurely from higher smoking rates.

Women smoked much less. In 2010, smoking caused nearly 1 million 840 000 male, 130 000 female deaths in China. Some bars, karaoke parlors, saunas and nightclubs were exempt until 1 July 2009. Smoking bans in lifts, public transport, cinemas, concert halls, airport terminal and escalators had been phased in between 1982 and 1997.

The ban in shopping centres, department stores, supermarkets, banks and game arcades has been in place since July 1998. The overall daily smoking rate in Hong Kong is 11. However, as the decreasing daily smoking rate in recent years mainly due to increasing tobacco tax, the government currently has no further plans to control sales of tobacco other than by adjusting taxation.