Term papers writing service


A what characteristics of normal lung tissue are missing from diseased tissue

Find articles by Johannes C. Received 2016 Oct 28; Accepted 2016 Nov 23. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

  1. The latter alveolarization continues until young adulthood.
  2. The phases of lung development are mainly based on morphological criteria.
  3. An effective vascular system feeding the blood into the gas exchange area and bringing it in close contact to the air Gehr et al. During organogenesis, the left and right lungs have their own anlage, an outpouching of the foregut.
  4. Abstract To fulfill the task of gas exchange, the lung possesses a huge inner surface and a tree-like system of conducting airways ventilating the gas exchange area.
  5. The latter confirms a lifelong ability of alveolarization, which is important for any kind of lung regeneration.

Abstract To fulfill the task of gas exchange, the lung possesses a huge inner surface and a tree-like system of conducting airways ventilating the gas exchange area.

During lung development, the conducting airways are formed first, followed by the formation and enlargement of the gas exchange area.

  • A tree of purely conducting airways bronchi and bronchioles transporting the air to and from the gas exchange region as well as many small trees of gas exchanging airways representing the acini respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts;
  • Ninety percent of the gas exchange surface area will be formed by alveolarization, a process where existing airspaces are subdivided by the formation of new walls septa;
  • A very large surface area possessing a very thin air—blood barrier for gas exchange;
  • It is located inside the acini Gehr et al;
  • An acinus is defined as the unit that is served by the most distal purely conducting airways terminal bronchioles;
  • Lung development, Branching morphogenesis, Alveolarization, Microvascular maturation, Pulmonary acinus Introduction Regardless whether they call the land, the sky, or the water their home, all reptiles, birds and mammals rely on their lungs for gas exchange.

The latter alveolarization continues until young adulthood. During organogenesis, the left and right lungs have their own anlage, an outpouching of the foregut.

  • Ninety percent of the gas exchange surface area will be formed by alveolarization, a process where existing airspaces are subdivided by the formation of new walls septa;
  • During lung development, the conducting airways are formed first, followed by the formation and enlargement of the gas exchange area;
  • The building blocks of a functional lung are;
  • However, in parallel to alveolarization, the double-layered capillary network of the immature septa fuses to a single-layered network resulting in an optimized setup for gas exchange;
  • It is located inside the acini Gehr et al;
  • The latter alveolarization continues until young adulthood.

Each lung bud starts a repetitive process of outgrowth and branching branching morphogenesis that forms all of the future airways mainly during the pseudoglandular stage. During the canalicular stage, the differentiation of the epithelia becomes visible and the bronchioalveolar duct junction is formed.

The location of this junction stays constant throughout life. Towards the end of the canalicular stage, the first gas exchange may take place and survival of prematurely born babies becomes possible.

Ninety percent of the gas exchange surface area will be formed by alveolarization, a process where existing airspaces are subdivided by the formation of new walls septa. This process requires a double-layered capillary network at the basis of the newly forming septum. However, in parallel to alveolarization, the double-layered capillary network of the immature septa fuses to a single-layered network resulting in an optimized setup for gas exchange.

Alveolarization still continues, because, at sites where new septa are lifting off preexisting mature septa, the required second capillary layer will be formed instantly by angiogenesis.

The latter confirms a lifelong ability of alveolarization, which is important for any kind of lung regeneration. Lung development, Branching morphogenesis, Alveolarization, Microvascular maturation, Pulmonary acinus Introduction Regardless whether they call the land, the sky, or the water their home, all reptiles, birds and mammals rely on their lungs for gas exchange. The building blocks of a functional lung are: A tree of purely conducting airways bronchi and bronchioles transporting the air to and from the gas exchange region as well as many small trees of gas exchanging airways representing the acini respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts.

Development of the lung

An acinus is defined as the unit that is served by the most distal purely conducting airways terminal bronchioles. It represents the functional unit of the lung Storey and Staub 1962 ; Tyler 1983.

A very large surface area possessing a very thin air—blood barrier for gas exchange.

  • An acinus is defined as the unit that is served by the most distal purely conducting airways terminal bronchioles;
  • Because most processes during lung development start proximal and extend into the periphery, all phases of lung development overlap Fig;
  • Towards the end of the canalicular stage, the first gas exchange may take place and survival of prematurely born babies becomes possible;
  • During lung development, the conducting airways are formed first, followed by the formation and enlargement of the gas exchange area;
  • While fetal lung development consists in the pseudoglandular, canalicular and saccular stages, postnatal lung development comprises the stages of classical and continued alveolarization, as well as of microvascular maturation;
  • It is located inside the acini Gehr et al.

It is located inside the acini Gehr et al. An effective vascular system feeding the blood into the gas exchange area and bringing it in close contact to the air Gehr et al. A surfactant system facilitating inflation stability, decreasing the work of breathing and contributing to the innate host defense of the lungs Clements 1957 ; Sano and Kuroki 2005.

Introduction

Lung organogenesis is part of the embryonal period. While fetal lung development consists in the pseudoglandular, canalicular and saccular stages, postnatal lung development comprises the stages of classical and continued alveolarization, as well as of microvascular maturation.

The phases of lung development are mainly based on morphological criteria. Because most processes during lung development start proximal and extend into the periphery, all phases of lung development overlap Fig.

Table 1 Stages of lung development and their time scale Period.