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A response to looking backward a science fiction novel by edward bellamy

According to Erich Fromm, Looking Backward is "one of the most remarkable books ever published in America". The success of Looking Backward provoked a spate of sequels, parodies, satires, and skeptical dystopian responses.

The result was a "battle of the books" that lasted through the rest of the 19th century and into the 20th. William Morris's utopia News from Nowhere was partly written in reaction to Bellamy's utopia, which Morris did not find congenial.

The book contains a minimal amount of plot; Bellamy primarily used Equality to expand on the theories he first explored in Looking Backward.

  1. Leete tells Julian that market consolidation of industry was due to economies of scale and technological and industrial progression. East's Experiences in Mr.
  2. William Morris was so appalled by the bureaucratic and machine-like side of Bellamy's utopia that he was instantly driven to retort with News from Nowhere 1890 , which described an ideal world of a very different sort, though no less dream-like.
  3. Each citizen is provided with an annual allotment of goods and services.

Michaelis [Julian West discovers that utopia is on the verge of collapse. A series of dialogues with a janitor who used to be a professor but was fired when he criticized the state discuss how controlled capitalism is superior to socialism. A bloody massacre erupts when a jilted lover of Edith Leete West's beloved in Looking Backward leads a violent revolution. Geissler [In this tale, the violent revolution presented at the end of Richard Michaelis's book becomes Julian West's nightmare, and so never happened.

West learns that the janitor he has been talking to is wrong on all points, and a debate between a supporter and a skeptic of the future society ends with Bellamy's utopia triumphant.

Also, Earth establishes communication with Mars. As the utopian United States has abolished the military, only Julian West understands war and what is at stake — however, no one will listen to him as they are unable to think for themselves because the future system has abolished individuality.

But where is our great mother, the State she cried, throwing back her head with a superb motion. Every child that is born adds to its strength and glory! We who make the State, how long shall we appeal to it in vain! East's Experiences in Mr.

  • He concludes that the changes in society are not due to changes in human nature but, rather, from the economic equalization of all members of society;
  • Capitalism offers freedom and a variety of goods and services;
  • Author 1850-1898 US author and journalist, the latter from 1871, when he abandoned the practice of law before having properly begun it; no lawyers exist in the 2000 CE of his most famous work, the Utopia Looking Backward 2000-1887 1888 and its sequel, Equality 1897 , whose influence in the nineteenth century was enormous.

Records of the Years and by Conrad Wilbrandt [Mr. Ost, a German, reads Looking Backward and decides to try being mesmerised. He awakens in the future society of Looking Backward, only to discover it is full of shoddy goods, poor wages, and sexual favoritism. Roberts [The narrator, James North, acquires a potion that allows him and his beloved to sleep in suspended animation for several years.

They first awaken in to discover the United States in open class warfare. They sleep again and awaken in and meet Julian West, Dr.

Leete and other denizens of Bellamy's utopia. They discover rampant favoritism and a society on the brink of collapse.

Sleeping again, they awaken in to find that society has returned to capitalism to survive. A Sequel to Edward Bellamy's Celebrated Novel "Looking Backward"by Solomon Schindler [describes the adventures of Julian West's son, who after discovering a way to make sewage useful becomes president of the future utopia.

Hillman [describes a revolution in electricity that will help bring about Bellamy's world. In this society there is no private property, no big cities, no authority, no monetary system, no divorce, no courts, no prisons, and no class systems.

  1. West learns that the janitor he has been talking to is wrong on all points, and a debate between a supporter and a skeptic of the future society ends with Bellamy's utopia triumphant. Capitalism offers freedom and a variety of goods and services.
  2. Socialism is inherently unworkable, destroys individual motivation, and suppresses the means of economic calculation.
  3. Roberts [The narrator, James North, acquires a potion that allows him and his beloved to sleep in suspended animation for several years. No details are provided regarding how this change occurred.
  4. The Sixteenth Amendment 1896 Flower, B. In addition, individuals could will personal possessions freely to their descendents, but because most needs are met by the government the majority of these possessions revert to the state.

This agrarian society functions simply because the people find pleasure in nature, and therefore they find pleasure in their work. Julian West is made to tell how practical Socialism proved ludicrously defective in some important details.

In the simple process of eating one's dinner, or the necessary, if sombre, ordeal of being buried, we find Socialism a most cumbersome and, in fact, farcical institution. The story may be regarded as a reduetio ad absurdum of Bellamy's work. It ends appropriately in a lunatic asylum! The White Stone by Anatole France Originally published inThe White Stone was, in part, a rebuttal to the racist "yellow peril" fever of the time - a book about "white peril" and the rise of socialism.

Utopia by Thomas More Perhaps the first utopian socialist was Thomas Morewho wrote about an imaginary socialist society in his book Utopia The New Atlantis by Francis Bacon Lord Bacon's social philosophy was embodied in this publication. It followed somewhat the lines of Utopia. It was built upon a humane philosophy, and constructed a state based upon kindness and compassion towards the distressed.

  • Roberts [The narrator, James North, acquires a potion that allows him and his beloved to sleep in suspended animation for several years;
  • Bellamy simply said that it was the equal distribution of property that led to tremendous moral improvement and to the elimination of crime and wickedness.