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A research on the survivors of the holocaust

By comparing reminiscences of mothers who are Holocaust survivors to their daughters' reflections on the Holocaust, this study exposes the process of transmission and the roles of affect regulation, narrative cohesion, and symbolic representation in the transmission process. The extent of the parent's integration of affect significantly alters her child's ability to express her knowledge of the Holocaust and cope with painful emotions.

Psychosocial Interventions for Children of War: Utilizing the focus on interventions that enhance resiliency, the authors address the question of how basic relief and development programs and interventions providing food, clothing, shelter, basic medical needs, and education already provide important psycho-social interventions, and how specifically designated psychosocial interventions can be integrated with and enhance these ongoing programs.

Intergenerational Memory of the Holocaust. International Handbook of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma. New York Plenum Press.

The chapter focuses on the attempt to know, the defenses against knowledge, the different levels of knowing that are possible, the inevitable limits of knowing, and implications for healing, and will progress from an initial focus on survivors to a later focus on the next generation.

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Analysis of a child with survivor parents led to this discussion of transference and parent-child psychodynamic relationships. Both the child and the parent are dependant upon each other to reconstruct certain aspects of the past, to redress a damaged sense of self. The child seeks to imagine the parent's experiences to obtain a better understanding, while the parent needs the child to be a sympathetic listener and be understood.

An analyst working with such patients should attempt to reveal what the child is trying to understand and reconstruct, the atmosphere at home and how it is afffected, and the world view the child forms because of these dynamics and events. After six survivor children were admitted to a Jewish hospital, observations of the hospitalized survivor child were conducted.

This article reviews these observations and asserts that adequate treatment of psychiatric hospitalized survivor children requires a deep understanding of the role as a survivor child on development, behavior, and personality.

Each child was administered a test that assesses the extent of externalization of aggression in response to frustrating events. The two groups did not differ in aggressive exspression, leading to the conclusion that transgenerational effects may cease in the third generation. In a study population of women with breast cancer, 106 second generation women were compared to a 102 women control group.

In conclusion, second-generation survivors are more susceptible to psychological distress in a traumatic situation, such as breast cancer. Many survivors of the Holocaust quickly established families, and within families the phenomena of trauma transmission can be observed.

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Parents tend to either obsess over re-telling their stories or keep an all-consuming silence, which are cited in the literature. Current literature also supports the evidence for transgenerational transmission, and a call is made for rigorous empirical studies to test these theories.

The authors summarize the means in which survivor syndrome is translated to the children of Holocaust survivors, manifesting itself through symptoms such as depression, guilt, and aggression and inhibiting autonomous growth. They end with a call for further research and treatment options. The Next Generation of Holocaust Victims. The authors explore the transgenerational effects of the Holocaust on the children of survivors. A significant number of survivors' children seek professional help as adults.

The authors examine child rearing techniques practiced by survivors parents and the implications of these socializing practices on transference and psychological development.

This article specifically addresses psychic trauma and transmission effects on offspring of Holocaust survivors. Mahler's separation-indiviudation theories are applied to ailments such as depression, guilt, and aggression. These children may be more susceptible to low self-esteem, narcisstic vulnerability, and other identity problems.

Further research is needed to develop preventive measures. Interviews with an Auschwitz Doctor and His Son. It a research on the survivors of the holocaust proposed that the selecting is motivated by the father's covert quest for mastery together with an overt perception of himaself as, paradoxically, 'moral.

The son's interview is interpreted as a limited vehicle for going beyond what the parent transmitted and for partially confronting and working through the parent's role during the Nazi era. Building Social Bonds Out of Silence. Seven Years After the First Interviews. In addition, several television programs and journalists have interviewed the German self-help group that evolved as a by-product of this study.

In what way did the numerous interviews, the grup work, or both affect their life perspective? The approach is used as a framework for interpretation of the results of three studies on Holocaust survivors and their offspring, from different countries The Netherlands, Canada, and Israel and based on different conceptual approaches and methods of data collection quantitative as well as qualitative.

Direct narratives from three groups were analyzed using the following criteria: The three groups analyzed were children of perpetrators, children of Holocaust witnesses, and descendents of children of war, who were not involed in Nazi activities.

From the data, the researchers argue that the inability to empathize with others' suffering may encourage those who promote discrimination and persecution of minorities. The theory of intergenerational transmission was tested by studying two groups of children. The first group consisted of children with parents who loss their own parents early in life, were child survivors, or were in hiding and the children themselves were either an only child or the first born and did not participate in survivors group.

The second group were children of survivors without these circumstances or that their parents imigrated before WWII.

While the theory suggests that the first group would result in lower personal adjustment and coping mechanisms and higher narcissistic beliefs, the results did not support personality differences associated with their parents' survivor status.

After the liberation of the concentration camps, many survivors remained stateless in displaced persons' DP camps. It took months if not years for these people to be relocated, where an attempt at "normal" life again could finally begin. Remarkably, few people considered the psychiatric needs of the survivors, except for Friedman.

This article reviews the literature previously published on psychological needs for survivors, and the continuing need for studying this unique population. This case study hope to reveal some connections between a father's escape from Nazi Germany and his son's neurotic behavior.

At age 9, the boy began therapy due to his behavior, namely extreme irritability, negativism, restlessness, and a research on the survivors of the holocaust pains. After all symptoms subsided besides some irritability and anxiety, the boy's unconscious fantasies about his father's escape were found to be the cause. Only when these hidden material became vocalized did the patient recover fully. How unconscious inheritances from the Nazi period are entagles with modern conflict disposition will be described here with the use of case material.

This study analyzed how each of the three generations of Israeli Holocaust survivor families cope with their traumatic past. Interviews were conducted and categorized based on central themes and values. Family relationships and emotional difficulty were emphasized in all generations. Survivors also focused on family unity, and their children emphasized resolving family conflicts.

Grandchildren also stressed family unity and conflic resolution, but in addition they placed importance on educating younger generations about the Holocaust. In essence, working through the past varies for each generation. Coping and Patterns in Families of Holocaust Survivors.

This study analyzes the coping patterns used by families of Holocaust survivors. Life-story interviews from three generations were used to assess the significance attached to the Holocaust. Danieli's typology of adaptation was used to categorize the interviews victim families, fighter families, those who made it, and numb familiesalthough two new categories were added: Several disctinct coping mechanisms were used in families with the Holocaust as a past.

The author critiques the notion of the second-generation syndrome, arguing that this categorization diminishes the personal psychological development of children of survivors and overemphasizes the influence of the parents.

He argues that generalities made from specific studies of individuals are too case dependant, and that fiction may be just as revealing as learned papers about the psyche of children of survivors. An International Journal 5: This paper presents a discussion on the 13 most commonly observed countertransference reactions among therapists, survivors and their children. These reactions include bystander's guilt, rage, dread and horror, shame, murder versus death, me too, victim and hero, the America liberator, grief and mourning, Jewish identity, reduction to method and theory and privilaged voyeurism.

Conclusions and Future Directions. New York, Plenum Press. This volume reveals how they view, understand, and conceptualize the multigenerational legacies of trauma of multiple populations and places their findings within the multidimensional, multidisciplinary, integrative TCMI framework.

For some of these populations, this is the first time such issues have appeared in print. History and Conceptual Foundations. It seeks to provide a comprehensive picture of the knowledge accumulated worldwide to date including clinical, theoretical research, and policy perspectives. This paper is a product of the rising interest in the treatment of Holocaust survivors, revealing seven categories of survivors that may need psychosocial support.

Forty years later, there is still a need for mental health care for survivors and their families, and these services are still highly necessary.

While transgenerational mechanisms have been positively identified in Holocaust survivors and their families, parents who have been traumatized in other ways, such as child neglect or becoming orphaned, may also transmit their feelings and anxieties to their children. A case study is described where the mother had been traumatically separated from her parents at a young age, and how that event affected her relationship with her daughter is discussed.

Transgenerational Transmission of the Effects of the Holocaust. A conceptual frameowrk is proposed, which organizes and unifies the diverse empirical observations regarding cognitive-affective, interpersonal, and defensive styles among HOF, and offers possible explanations for the discrepancies between clinical reports and empirical studies. A sample of children of Holocaust survivors and a control group were studied to investigate identification patterns with their parents.

Clear differences were found, and this divergence suggests a specific character organization. Finally, an explanation for these differences is proposed and defended. Child Survivors of the Holocaust and Offspring of Survivors. Group therapy seems to be an effective venue for expression of painful memories.

Feelings of hope and cohesiveness can develop through group sessions, acting as curative factors for all generations of Holocaust survivors and their families.

As a child of a Holocaust survivor, the author discusses her experiences in group settings with other second generation individuals. The mourning process and benefits to group mourning are particularly emphasized. The author believes that resilience is developed by creating a self more engaged with the outside world.

This paper explores some of the issues and problems with treating children of survivors. A common dilemma is to find a sympathetic and appropriate listener to retell their stories. As a result, the authors formed therapeutic awareness groups for children of survivors where feelings could be shared in an understanding environment. The support groups were enormously useful, and this article details the process of forming groups, composition of participants, leadership roles, and group development.

They evaluate their role as leaders, and examine countertransference, personal motivation, and the establishment of goals within the group context. Preparation for therapists leading short-term homogenous groups of which they are not members is also explored. It is proposed that the transmission of specific traumatic ideas across generations may be mediated by a vulnerability to dissociative states established in the infant by frightened of frightening caregiving, which, in its turn, is trauma-related.