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A look at the history of cleopatra the queen of egypt

She died on 31-07-0030 B. Cleopatra revived the Ptolemaic powers through diplomatic skills, in addition to her using her personality to make alliances with Roman rulers, and to have Egyptian competitors murdered.

10 Little-Known Facts About Cleopatra

Her fame is connected to a turbulent life of love affairs with the most influential men of her time. Her life story has inspired playwrights, and movie makers, making her the most famous personality of ancient Egypt.

Born, as the daughter of Ptolemy 11. Cleopatra is made joint ruler with her 12 year old brother Ptolemy 12, as the two marry. Ptolemy takes full control over Egypt, driving Cleopatra into exile in Syria. Ptolemy is killed by drowning by the Roman general, Julius Caesar. Cleopatra is proclaimed queen of Egypt. She marries her 11 year old brother, Ptolemy 13, which is the only legitimate way she can be in power, but she chooses to become the mistress of Julius Caesar, with whom she travels to Rome to live.

The couple has the son Caesarion together, and later Cleopatra gives birth to Ptolemy 14, who, according to the mother, also was the son of Julius Caesar.

Julius Caesar is killed and Cleopatra returns to Egypt. After Cleopatra has had Ptolemy 13 murdered by poison, she is the real ruler, as the nominal ruler is her infant son, Ptolemy 14. Cleopatra forms an alliance with the Roman general Mark Antony, based upon a romantic relationship.

Mark Antony is called back to Rome, where he marries Octavia, the sister of the Roman consul Octavian. Soon after Cleopatra gives birth to twins. Cleopatra marries Mark Antony in Antioch and later a third child of the two is born. The couple plan to establish a vast kingdom, of which the sons of Caesar and Mark Antony with Cleopatra are to be the inheritors. After Mark Antony has successfully met the Parthians in war, he returns to Alexandria with Cleopatra, where they announces that the old kingdom of Alexander the Great is to belong to the descendants of Cleopatra.

Mark Antony divorces Octavia. Octavian hunts them down, back to Egypt.

In Alexandria, when Mark Antony and Cleopatra are divided, he is surrounded by the troops of Octavian and when he hears the rumour that Cleopatra has committed suicide, he kills himself by falling on the sword. Cleopatra surrenders to Octavian and tries to make him her lover.

As this doesn't prove successful, she poisons herself, or has herself bitten by a snake and dies. Her sons, Caesarion and Ptolemy 14, are then murdered and the Ptolemaic dynasty has come to the final end. Cleopatra is one of those legendary and romantic figures of history who have captured the imaginations of every generation since her own time.

Cleopatra was an ambitious woman, determined to rule her kingdom and keep it out of the hands of the ever more powerful and expansionist Romans in Italy to the West. She was considered to be one of the most intelligent and canny female rulers of all times and was not afraid to utilize her feminine charms to advance her political ambitions.

  • Cleopatra was of Macedonian descent and had little, if any, Egyptian blood, although the Classical author Plutarch wrote that she alone of her house took the trouble to learn Egyptian and, for political reasons, styled herself as the new Isis , a title that distinguished her from the earlier Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra III, who had also claimed to be the living embodiment of the goddess Isis;
  • Power grabs and murder plots were as much a Ptolemaic tradition as family marriage, and Cleopatra and her brothers and sisters were no different.

She was the lover of one powerful Roman leader and married to another. Cleopatra was born in about 69 B. It was the custom amongst Ptolemaic rulers that brother should marry sister and rule jointly. This was to ensure that none of the powerful families would gain enough influence to control the throne of Egypt. Instead of marrying her, Ptolemy exiled her and took over the throne himself.

Cleopatra gathered an army and tried to take back what was rightfully hers, but was having no success. Some Egyptians thought they could gain Caesar's favor by murdering Pompey and presenting his head to Caesar, but Caesar instead mourned the death of a friend, even though Pompey had been his rival.

Cleopatra, with her talent for seduction and a flair for the dramatic, used a much more subtle way to gain the attention and affection of Julius Caesar. She had herself rolled up in a carpet, and, disguised as a gift to the famous Roman, she was delivered by one of her slaves to Caesar's camp.

Immediately captivated by her charm and wit, Caesar fell madly in love with the Egyptian queen. Over the course of the next three years, the two royal lovers joined forces to defeat and kill her treacherous brother, took a trip up the Nile, and planned to carve out an empire for themselves.

Caesar then took Cleopatra to Rome and set her up in a household of her own. Cleopatra had a son by Caesar whom she named Caesarion. Cleopatra was not very popular with the Romans, who resented this foreign queen who had seduced their popular leader. After Caesar's death she got her second brother out of the way by poisoning him.

She then ruled jointly with her infant son. By this time, the rivalry between Marc Antony and Octavian had heated up to the point of becoming open civil war. Instead, she came to him with her court, her royal barge all decked out in splendor. Antony could no more resist the Egyptian queen than Caesar could before him. With Antony eating from the palm of her hand, she believed that she could use Roman military might to further her plans to build an Egyptian empire.

2. She was the product of incest.

Antony fell in love with and eventually married Cleopatra. In the meantime, Octavian was denouncing Antony and his Egyptian queen, saying that he wanted only to make Rome part of an Oriental empire ruled by a despot.

As time went on, Antony lost more and more support from Roman soldiers and citizens alike.

  • Antony, who associated himself with the Greek deity Dionysus, was seduced by her charms;
  • It was the custom amongst Ptolemaic rulers that brother should marry sister and rule jointly;
  • Antony had already left Alexandria to return to Italy, where he was forced to conclude a temporary settlement with Octavian;
  • Theda Bara in the film Cleopatra, 1917;
  • According to ancient sources, they spent the winter of 41-40 B;
  • The poison worked swiftly, and her two servant girls followed her in death.

The showdown between the two was not long incoming. At Actium, in 31 B. In fact, the battle was nowhere near a lost cause until after she had fled. Antony chose to take a boat himself and join his lover in flight instead of remaining with his men. The battle was soon over with most of Antony's men deserting or surrendering after he had gone. Antony and Cleopatra had only a few short months left. After Actium, Octavian's army inexorably pushed onward, conquering Egypt after some spirited but wholly inadequate resistance.

Antony had fallen on his sword in despair, but survived his suicide attempt long enough to be taken to Cleopatra, where he died in her arms.

Cleopatra herself, rather than be taken alive, preferred suicide. She could not face the prospect of having to march in shame and degradation in Octavian's triumph, having once been a proud queen of an independent Egypt.

As Roman soldiers searched noisily in the streets of Alexandria for Cleopatra, she accepted a final gift from one of her faithful serving girls. Hidden within a basket of fruit was a deadly poisonous asp. The poison worked swiftly, and her two servant girls followed her in death. When the soldiers finally broke into the tomb and roughly demanded where Cleopatra was, only one girl had enough life remaining to tell them that in death, Cleopatra had escaped her captors.

  1. Antony and Cleopatra spent the winter of 32—31 bce in Greece.
  2. As this doesn't prove successful, she poisons herself, or has herself bitten by a snake and dies.
  3. Cleopatra gathered an army and tried to take back what was rightfully hers, but was having no success. On August 12, 30 B.
  4. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt , and Cleopatra retired to her mausoleum as Antony went off to fight his last battle.
  5. Antony and Cleopatra had only a few short months left. After Mark Antony has successfully met the Parthians in war, he returns to Alexandria with Cleopatra, where they announces that the old kingdom of Alexander the Great is to belong to the descendants of Cleopatra.