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A i m a cultural contingency approach

What Are the Implications of the Contingency Theory for Managers?

Pei-designed building is immediately stunning in its synthesis of different Islamic styles, particularly the muqarnas of its interior dome. What stuck with me was the enviable breadth and quality of works on display, which brought together art and artefacts from across the Muslim world, with an emphasis on Iran and South Asia. Now imagine an encyclopedic museum filled with a similar collection drawn from the history of Christian civilizations.

Somewhere heavily Christian but relatively peripheral to that tradition, like Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, or perhaps Valletta, Malta if you wanted a city closer to the birthplace of the religion. Extend the idea to a more immaterial understanding of the global commons predicated on a shared cultural heritage, however, and things begin to approach the stickiness of frog saliva. And who is us? Now consider public space in an American city.

  1. To even be in America as a non-citizen requires a passport but not a Syrian, Iranian, Sudani, Libyan, Somali, or Yemeni one , and documentation of funds, family or business ties, evidence of your tourist itinerary, and above all, a verifiable intent to leave.
  2. Like a shared fridge, users can choose what they put into the commons.
  3. And what of its spiritual value to a community? What even is the artefact or monument in the age of shanzhai, of 3D printing?

It might be best understood not by who it includes but those it seeks to keep out, from the homeless to those playing music too loudly, walking dogs, drinking in public, or just dressed the wrong way.

Depending on who you are, doing some things in public may even get you killed: To even be in America as a non-citizen requires a passport but not a Syrian, Iranian, Sudani, Libyan, Somali, or Yemeni oneand documentation of funds, family or business ties, evidence of your tourist itinerary, and above all, a verifiable intent to leave.

From internet access to the ability to travel to and pay for entry into the institutions that house the material cultures of past civilizations, the global cultural commons works in much the same way. The thing about expropriation to the commons is that it assumes some sort of reversal, a regaining of what was once collectively owned and shared but lost. Not everyone gets to be a member of these publics.

Contingency theory

A Venn diagram of people who support the idea of a cultural commons and those who think cultural appropriation is unsavory would, I suspect, feature a fair amount of overlap. Yet the thing about data, at least in its digital iterations, is that its attribution tends to be built in. Embedded in the files themselves is metadata, which the states of Arizona and Washington have recently ruled to be public record.

  • What even is the artefact or monument in the age of shanzhai, of 3D printing?
  • Strategy, technology, task, organizational size, structure, and culture there are many forms of contingency theory a contingency approach to software project;
  • A deeper look could reveal that poor lighting and insufficient cooling are causing sleepiness among employees;
  • For example, decreasing production might seem at first glance to be the result of negligent employees;
  • Sometimes the situation demands your leadership most used approach contingency factors in the normative decision model;
  • We may see it as the logical next step in the economy of casts and copies that have long characterized Western institutions.

Creative Commons and similar licenses, meanwhile, give creators a fine level of control over the commercial circulation and derivative iterations of their works. Although legislation like the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act provides some recourse, the same is rarely true for cultural objects. The Million Image Database.

Free Culture?

While the ICC has indicted some 42 people to date, only three have been charged. Everyone indicted thus far has been an African, inciting suspicions of bias that has resulted in South Africa and Burundi withdrawing from the court, and the African Union exhorting all its member states to follow suit.

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Countries like the United States or Russia, which are not signatories, cannot be prosecuted. On the level of cultural terrorism, the situation is exacerbated by the fact that neither Iraq nor Syria, whose ancient buildings and artifacts are systematically being destroyed by ISIS, are party to the ICC. This retrofitting of a civilizational genealogy as a means of self-inscription within global history is an extension of the same phenomenon that arbitrarily posited the glories of the ancient Greeks and Romans as the fount of Western civilization and tried, through what has come to be known as the Hametic Hypothesis, to argue the ancient Egyptians and other African civilizations must have had Caucasian roots.

Whereas Europe might have favored scientific racism as a technological aide, these days we instead see 3D printing widely deployed as an attempt to preserve and even reconstruct monuments and relics destroyed by ISIS.

  • Had the manager simply relied on motivational theories as an automatic response to productivity problems, he might have missed the true cause of the drop in production;
  • Policy Shifts Companies issue policies to reduce the amount of time spent making routine decisions;
  • The contingency approach to management is based on the idea that and products or services to differing cultural other contingency leadership;
  • Not everyone gets to be a member of these publics.

Everything about Palmyra that was great is what is great about New York City. We may see it as the logical next step in the economy of casts and copies that have long characterized Western institutions. What even is the artefact or monument in the age of shanzhai, of 3D printing?

A i m a cultural contingency approach

And what of its spiritual value to a community? It works because its users—each a member of those particular commons—distribute both resources bandwidth, for example and risk.

Like a shared fridge, users can choose what they put into the commons. In the realm of culture, however, people very rarely have that choice.

The same distribution of resources and risk happens here, but with decades and sometimes centuries of temporal lag: Information, and data might want to be free, but what does culture want?