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A history of the sputnik satellite in the russian space program

There are a variety of other classes of Soviet spacecraft that are referred to as "Sputniks" by Americans, however only the first five were part of the Soviet Sputnik Program. The first of these spacecraft, Sputnik 1, was the first artificial satellite ever to be launched into orbit, effectively starting the "Space Race" between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Sputnik: The Space Race's Opening Shot

Several design changes later, in Korolev's R-7 was created, powerful enough to put a satellite into orbit. As participants in the "International Geophysical Year", the Russians were working on a satellite with a scientific payload, but progress was slow, and there was an urgency to beat the Americans into space. Since the R-7 was ready, Korolev's team designed a barebones satellite, a simple beeping orbiter, which became known as Sputnik 1.

Sputnik 1 was launched on October 4, The satellite was 23 inches in diameter and weighed approximately lb.

  • In mid, Tikhonravov led the earliest studies in the Soviet Union on the problems of multistage missiles and orbiting spacecraft;
  • Sputnik 2 burned up in the upper atmosphere in April 1958.

Each of its elliptical orbits around the Earth took about 96 minutes. Set up to broadcast a beep on 20 and 40 MHz frequencies, its signal was received both by scientists and amateur radio operators worldwide for 22 days until October 26, when the onboard batteries ran out of charge. Sputnik 1 was also outfitted with instruments to measure the density of the Earth's atmosphere. Calculations based on the last signals received from the satellite and the degradation of its orbit project that Sputnik 1 burned into the atmosphere on January 4, Some evidence indicates that parts of the spacecraft survived re-entry.

  1. The spacecraft's mass was limited to 1,000-1,400 kilograms, relying on the capabilities of the R-7 ballistic missile. There was no re-entry plan.
  2. As the original satellite development program was designated Object D, the index "D" was added to the names of systems supporting the mission. Due both to the secrecy of these Soviet space missions and disinformation tactics, many facts about the Sputnik satellites are disputable.
  3. The flight controllers intentionally left the Tral telemetry system onboard the core stage active and its signal was detected during the second orbit.
  4. Doing further research on the habitability of space for humans, Sputnik 5 carried two dogs, Belka and Strelka, two rats, forty mice, various plants and a human mannequin "Ivan Ivanovich". Work on a new spacecraft intended to replace the Soyuz crew capsule designed 50 years ago has crawled slowly.
  5. Sputnik 1 was also outfitted with instruments to measure the density of the Earth's atmosphere. Sputnik 1 was also outfitted with instruments to measure the density of the Earth's atmosphere.

Sputnik 2, launched on November 3, via the R-7 rocket, was the second artificial spacecraft to achieve Earth orbit. This was also the first spacecraft to carry a living creature, a thirteen pound dog named Laika. Built by Korolev and his team in less than one month, Sputnik 2 was a thirteen-foot high cone-shaped structure, the base measuring six and one-half feet, and weighed in at roughly half a ton.

Originally reported to have survived 7 days, documents released in revealed that Laika perished from overheating several hours into the spaceflight due to malfunctions in the thermal control subsystem. As tragic as this seems, the original plan was to euthanize Laika after 10 days with poisoned food, as there was only enough oxygen to last 10 days.

60 years after Sputnik, Russian space program faces troubles

There was no re-entry plan. After days on orbit, Sputnik 2 reentered the atmosphere on April 14, The Sputnik 3 satellite was launched on May 15, with the intent of studying the ionosphere. This was the satellite that had originally been slated for the first Soviet launch. Sputnik 3, like Sputnik 2, was conical in shape, and weighed about 2, lbs. It carried 12 scientific instruments designed to study the pressure and composition of the atmosphere in its upper layers; concentration of charged particles, photons in cosmic rays, heavy nuclei in cosmic rays, magnetic and electrostatic fields, and meteoric particles, as well as measure the temperature in the spacecraft and on its surface.

Sputnik launched

Due to a failure of its onboard tape recorder, data could only be collected from Sputnik 3 during space to ground radio contacts. Sputnik 4 remained in orbit until April 6,when the orbit degraded from drag in upper atmosphere and the spacecraft burned into the atmosphere.

  1. Initially, he saw rockets purely as weapons, which would give him an equal footing in negotiations with the West. Initially, he saw rockets purely as weapons, which would give him an equal footing in negotiations with the West.
  2. As the original satellite development program was designated Object D, the index "D" was added to the names of systems supporting the mission.
  3. The enormous resonance of the Sputnik launch was also thanks to the multifaceted nature of this single event and its ability to simultaneously break so many assumptions, long-standing theories and even entire political strategies. This was also the first spacecraft to carry a living creature, a thirteen pound dog named Laika.
  4. In 1966, Luna 9 achieved the first soft landing of an object on the moon and transmitted the first close-up photos of the lunar surface. Built by Korolev and his team in less than one month, Sputnik 2 was a thirteen-foot high cone-shaped structure, the base measuring six and one-half feet, and weighed in at roughly half a ton.

Sputnik 4 was launched on May 14,designed to investigate the means for manned space flight. Weighing approximately 3, pounds, it contained scientific instruments to study the operation of the life support system and the stresses of flight, including a television system, and a self-sustaining biological cabin with a "dummy" of a man.

Sputnik 4 orbited the Earth for four days, then was scheduled to release a re-entry cabin.

BACKGROUND

The cabin released, however retro rockets designed to de-orbit the cabin fired with incorrect attitude data, pushing the cabin further out into space. The capsule eventually re-entered the atmosphere on September 5,leaving at least one of it's pieces in Manitowoc, Wisconsin, USA. Due to SOS signals received from the vicinity of Sputnik 4 on November 28,some sources suggest that this flight was actually manned by a human.

Sputnik 5 was launched on August 19,the first space flight that actually returned living creatures back from space, unharmed. Doing further research on the habitability of space for humans, Sputnik 5 carried two dogs, Belka and Strelka, two rats, forty mice, various plants and a human mannequin "Ivan Ivanovich". Sputnik 5 weighed 10, pounds, and returned to the Earth after one day of orbiting on August 20, Both Sputnik 4 and 5 are also considered part of the Vostok Program.

The Sputnik Program had significant military implications to the world: Conventional bombers would take several hours for the same flight. The Soviet's status as a very formidable foe to the United States was cemented and the tensions of the Cold War were heightened.

In the late 's, the Soviet Union saw itself as the stronger of the superpowers in both the Space Race and the Cold War.

While the United States Navy and Air Force were working on their own space missile projects prior to the launch of Sputnik 1, this event spurred the U. Congress in than the previous year.

From Sputnik to Spacewalking: 7 Soviet Space Firsts

Although the launch of Sputnik 1 is often cited as the beginning of the Space Race, both countries were already racing to become the first space power. Because the Space Race occurred during the Cold War, secrecy was a necessarily.

Due both to the secrecy of these Soviet space missions and disinformation tactics, many facts about the Sputnik satellites are disputable. Many classified documents have since been released to the public, but many secrets have been kept secret. For information contact cevans nvcc.