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A descriptive study about radiation emission from mobile phones affected the health conditions of us

Mahmoodi ,3 and E. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Skin health has become a worldwide concern. Most of the studies investigated the effect of mobile phone radiation on DNA and animals, but a few studies were carried out about skin diseases in mobile phone and tablet users.

Few systematic studies have examined the relationship between mobile phone exposure and skin diseases. We evaluated the association between mobile phones and tablets and skin diseases. The eligibility criteria were descriptive, and observational studies were in English and Persian language, and the subjects were of all ages and reported skin disease.

Most of the studies focused on signs and less on skin cancer. In total, 6 studies were included with 392119 participants with age over 25 years. Overall evaluations showed that the level of evidence associated with the effects of radiation from the mobile phone and tablet on the skin is poor. This review shows a necessity for more studies in this area.

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Introduction Mobile phones and tablets have become the most effective communication tools especially in metropolitan cities [ 1 ]. Exposure of the general population to radiofrequency RF fields from mobile phones and other communication tools has become universal and continuous in recent years [ 2 ].

The number of mobile phone users has gone up to 5 billion in a world of 7.

Development of using mobile phones has increased concerns about the safety of health, in recent years. The studies reflected public concerns about childhood and adult cancers. The possibility that some individuals experience hypersensitivity or other symptoms in response to mobile exposure was a high priority for research [ 3 ]. The emitted radiation in mobile phone and tablet is electromagnetic ray in the microwave range 850—1800 [ 1 ]. Collected evidence indicates that the frequency produced by mobile phones or base stations may affect the health of the people [ 45 ].

  • Overall evaluations showed that the level of evidence associated with the effects of radiation from the mobile phone and tablet on the skin is poor;
  • All studies were done on both sexes and the mean age was 35 years;
  • Some authors have found no increased probability of tumor development in mobile phone users,18,19,21,24 while other have stated that the use of mobile phones - particularly analog handsets - for 10 years or more is a risk factor for developing tumors;
  • No study thus far has demonstrated that exposure to RF without thermal effects produces genetic mutations or chromosomal aberrations in mammal cells, which suggests that RF cannot initiate tumors;
  • Mobile phone radiation for one hour causes morphological changes and increased fibroblast activity of the skin;
  • In the first step, a total of 150 articles were found by searching databases and bibliographies.

Skin diseases allocated high burden of disease rank eighteenth in all age groups [ 9 ]. Among the factors that are related to skin diseases, less attention has been paid to environmental factors. Most studies have been done on these factors, in animals. The results indicate that exposure to radiation emitted by mobile phones caused skin changes in rats, as, increased thickness of surface layer, atrophy of epidermis, deep layer proliferation, vascular proliferation, impairment in collagen tissue and protein expression in human skin in proteomics approach.

Radiation Effects of Mobile Phones and Tablets on the Skin: A Systematic Review

The lack of studies on the association between mobile phone use and risk of skin diseases prompted us to examine these associations in this systematic review. A range of mesh, key words, and their combinations were used, including skin disease, cell phone, smart phone, mobile phone, electrochemical magnetic field, skin cancer, skin carcinoma, and health effects.

We also did not consider articles that merely assessed the physiologic effects and reviewed the bibliographies for additional publications. The language of publication was English and Persian.

Selection Criteria We included studies that had the following criteria: Studies retrieved from the databases that had the predetermined selection criteria were assessed by two of the authors independently. If the authors had disagreed, they resolved by discussion or in consultation with a third author.

The exclusion criteria were included: In the larger studies included in this survey were any conducted solely by telephone. This checklist contains 11 sections for cross-sectional studies and 12 sections for cohort studies. Data Extraction The information consisted of the name of the first author, where country the study was conducted, and the date of publication, sample size, and the method of data collection Table 1.

Studies on the effects of mobile on skin diseases. Results Figure 1 shows a flow chart that we searched and selected appropriate articles. In the first step, a total of 150 articles were found by searching databases and bibliographies.

We reviewed the full text of selected articles, as shown in Figure 16 articles were included in the systematic review. The sample size in the 6 studies one cohort study and five cross-sectional studies was 392119, and the details of the articles are presented in Table 1.

All studies were done on both sexes and the mean age was 35 years. The diseases that were assessed in these studies included skin cancer, dermatitis, itching, warmth and burning feeling, and rash Table 2. After a period of at least 20 years, little evidence of skin cancer risk was observed among the mobile phone users [ 6 ]. Most skin symptoms usually began during or after the call and lasted for up to 2 h but these results suggest an awareness of the symptoms, but not necessarily a serious health problem [ 12 ].

This study presents an overview about the impact of radiofrequency waves on the health of medical students in Saudi Arabia. The most of skin symptoms were reported including facial dermatitis [ 13 ]. Methodology of studies included in the systematic review. Conclusions In this systematic review, we searched articles in databases. Abstracts and text of the articles were examined from various aspects. In the present study, the studied population was of both sexes with an average age of 35 years; therefore, this shows the importance of the issue.

These persons have high performance in communities, so their illness increases the burden of the disease.

  • If the authors had disagreed, they resolved by discussion or in consultation with a third author;
  • These animals were compared to an unexposed control group;
  • This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited;
  • Handheld cellular telephones and risk of acoustic neuroma;
  • The SAR is expressed in power Watts by tissue mass kilograms.

All studies were cross-sectional or cohort, and there were different morbidity indexes between mobile radiation and skin diseases. The duration of exposure to mobile radiation was very different for skin signs; therefore, we did not have the possibility of meta-analyzing studies. We found that the use of mobile phones was associated with a mildly increased risk of skin problems. This is the first systematic review on the effects of mobile phone radiation on skin diseases.

In two other studies, these pointed to warmth sensation after the use of mobile phones [ 611 ]. IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer classified that the mobile-emitted radiation could be some risk of carcinogenicity, so further studies into heavy use of mobile phones needs to be conducted [ 14 ].

Previous studies have reported that collagen tissue increased in cells exposed to mobile radiation. Mobile phone radiation for one hour causes morphological changes and increased fibroblast activity of the skin. Another study also found that exposure to 900 MHz mobile phone radiation creates exocytosis in skin cells.

Some studies have shown that the degree of destruction caused by mobile radiation is related to the duration of exposure to radiation [ 4 ]. Epidemiological studies conducted on humans and animals indicate that electromagnetic waves produce a wide range of side effects in different systems of the body [ 15 ], but they have not achieved a definite result [ 16 ].

Skin reactions in the ears and around it are the most common symptoms reported among mobile phone users during a telephone call [ 1217 ]. As worldwide rates of mobile phone users rise, Richardson showed that mobile phone-associated contact dermatitis is increasing. In order to control allergens in phones, many phones have metals such as nickel that are sufficient to induce contact dermatitis; Therefore, patients with dermatitis of the face, neck, hands, breasts, or anterior thighs, should be examined for exposure to mobile [ 18 ].

In patients with profuse sweating, it provides a predisposing condition, and the penetration of nickel to the skin increases the occurrence of contact dermatitis. Therefore, mobile phone dermatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of contact dermatitis. The patch test and dimethylglyoxime test may be helpful in establishing the diagnosis [ 19 ].

In the study of Hardel et al. Overall evaluations showed that the effects of mobile phone radiation on skin diseases are weak and have no statistical significance.

Some studies have shown weak impacts, and some studies have found that over ten years of mobile use have been effective, but mobile phones are still a new technology and little evidence about long-term side effects is available, as a result, prevention is the best approach.

Epidemiological studies on this topic are limited, and its long-term effects have not been evaluated, and there is a gap in the assessment relationship between mobile phone radiation and skin diseases. People are worried about the health effects of mobile phones, especially since it is part of daily life.

Advances in Medicine

These programs require extended studies on mobile phone technology and its impact on the safety of mobile users. Our study has limitations. First, only few studies on the study of mobile phone radiation and skin disease are available. Second, we did not have the ability to access the full text of some articles and low levels of evidence. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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