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A comparison of two different distributions of daily calcium and iron absorption

Recommendations to Prevent and Control Iron Deficiency in the United States Summary Iron deficiency is the most common known form of nutritional deficiency. Its prevalence is highest among young children and women of childbearing age particularly pregnant women. In children, iron deficiency causes developmental delays and behavioral disturbances, and in pregnant women, it increases the risk for a preterm delivery and delivering a low-birthweight baby.

In the past three decades, increased iron intake among infants has resulted in a decline in childhood iron-deficiency anemia in the United States. As a consequence, the use of screening tests for anemia has become a less efficient means of detecting iron deficiency in some populations. For women of childbearing age, iron deficiency has remained prevalent.

Vegan Diets and Iron Absorption

To address the changing epidemiology of iron deficiency in the United States, CDC staff in consultation with experts developed new recommendations for use by primary health-care providers to prevent, detect, and treat iron deficiency. CDC emphasizes sound iron nutrition for infants and young children, screening for anemia among women of childbearing age, and the importance of low-dose iron supplementation for pregnant women.

  1. For an individual of small body size, the donation of a unit of blood 240 mg iron represents a larger proportion of total body iron which may lead more rapidly to smaller body iron stores. Austr Bulletin of Labour 1986; 13.
  2. Wardle J, Marshland L. Dietary intake and biochemical, hematologic, and immune status of vegans compared with nonvegetarians.
  3. The CDC recommendations in this report -- including those for pregnant women -- were developed for practical use in primary health-care and public health settings.

Too little iron can interfere with these vital functions and lead to morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia among children declined during the 1970s in association with increased iron intake during infancy 1-3.

Because of this decline, the value of anemia as a predictor of iron deficiency has also declined, thus decreasing the effectiveness of routine anemia screening among children. In contrast, the rate of anemia among low-income women during pregnancy is high, and no improvement has been noted since the 1970s 4.

All About Iron

These findings, plus increased knowledge about screening for iron status, raised questions about the necessity and effectiveness of existing U.

CDC requested the Institute of Medicine to convene an expert committee to develop recommendations for preventing, detecting, and treating iron-deficiency anemia among U. The committee met throughout 1992, and in 1993 the Institute of Medicine published the committee's recommendations 5. These guidelines are not practical for all primary health-care and public health settings, however, because they require serum ferritin testing during pregnancy 6. This testing may be appropriate in practices where women consistently visit their physician throughout pregnancy, but it is less feasible when analysis of serum ferritin concentration is unavailable or when prenatal care visits are sporadic.

The CDC recommendations in this report -- including those for pregnant women -- were developed for practical use in primary health-care and public health settings.

15 Iron-Rich Vegan Food Combinations

Public Health Service 13 have all published guidelines within the past 9 years for health-care providers that address screening for and treatment of iron deficiency in the United States.

Preventing and controlling iron deficiency are also addressed in Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans 14. The CDC recommendations differ from the guidelines published by the U. Preventive Services Task Force 10 in two major areas. First, the Task Force recommended screening for anemia among infants at high risk for anemia and pregnant women only.

The CDC recommends periodic screening for anemia among high-risk populations of infants and preschool children, among pregnant women, and among nonpregnant women of childbearing age. Second, the Task Force stated there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against iron supplementation during pregnancy, but the CDC recommends universal iron supplementation to meet the iron requirements of pregnancy. The CDC recommendations for iron supplementation during pregnancy are similar to the guidelines issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 9.

This report is intended to provide guidance to primary health-care providers and emphasizes the etiology and epidemiology of iron deficiency, the laboratory tests used to assess iron status, and the screening for and treatment of iron deficiency at all ages.

The recommendations in this report are based on the 1993 Institute of Medicine guidelines; the conclusions of an expert panel convened by CDC in April 1994; and input from public health nutrition program personnel, primary health-care providers, and experts in hematology, biochemistry, and nutrition.

National health objective 2. The recommendations in this report for preventing and controlling iron deficiency are meant to move the nation toward this objective. Iron is stored primarily as ferritin, but some is stored as hemosiderin.

Iron is transported in blood by the protein transferrin. The total amount of iron in the body is determined by intake, loss, and storage of this mineral 16.

  • In children, iron deficiency causes developmental delays and behavioral disturbances, and in pregnant women, it increases the risk for a preterm delivery and delivering a low-birthweight baby;
  • Br J Nutr 1983;49;
  • National Academy Press; 2001;
  • These findings, plus increased knowledge about screening for iron status, raised questions about the necessity and effectiveness of existing U;
  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans 14.