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A biography of theodore roosevelt an american politician author naturalist soldier explorer and hist


He put a river on the map, Brazil's "Rio Roosevelt," over 900 miles in length; and he started the Panama Canal. For a time he led his own political party, the Progressive or "Bull Moose" Party. He was President of the American Historical Association.

He was a major figure in American politics and government for nearly forty years. TR was elected to the New York State Assembly in 1881 at the age of twenty-three, and became President of the United States in 1901, at forty-two the youngest President before or since. Theodore Roosevelt's many-sidedness and versatility call to mind the concept of the "universal man" in Renaissance Italy, and he was indeed a kind of American Renaissance man.

Only Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin in American history seem obvious rivals to the multiplicity of Roosevelt's roles and accomplishments. Following a period of ascendancy after his death in 1919, TR's historical reputation went through a period of marked decline in the 1930s and 1940s, recovered dramatically in the 1950s, went down again in the 1960s, and began to rise in the 1970s. In polls of American historians in the 1980s, TR was ranked as a biography of theodore roosevelt an american politician author naturalist soldier explorer and hist of the four or five greatest Presidents of the United States.

But at all times since he appeared on the public scene in the 1880s, Roosevelt has had both ardent admirers and severely negative critics. Yet, while Theodore Roosevelt's greatness can be debated, his importance in American history is as obvious as his face on Mount Rushmore. The Association was formally chartered by special Act of Congress, May 31, 1920, "to perpetuate the memory of Theodore Roosevelt for the benefit of the people of the United States of America and the world. Led in the years 1919-1957 by Secretary and Director Hermann Hagedorn 1882-1964poet, author, historian, friend and biographer of TR, the Association engaged in a wide spectrum of programs and activities to preserve TR's memory.

The Association established four public sites: From the beginning, the Association collected research materials, and worked to encourage scholarship and make known and accessible the historical record of Roosevelt's life, career, and thought.

The Theodore Roosevelt Collection, consisting of over 12,000 printed items, 10,000 photographs, and thousands of manuscripts, papers, and letters, was donated by the Association to Harvard University in 1943; and the Theodore Roosevelt Association Film Collection of over 140,000 feet of film was given to the Library of Congress in the 1960s.

Through the years, the Association also published an impressive list of books. Cuddihy, publisher of Literary Digest, E. Page, editor of World's Work, as members. The Americanism of Theodore Roosevelt, excerpts from Roosevelt's writings, edited by Hagedorn, came out in 1923. Hart received a Ph. He taught at Harvard 1883-1926. One of the first generation of professionally trained historians in the United States, a prolific author and editor of historical works, Albert Bushnell Hart became, as Samuel Eliot Morison says, "The Grand Old Man" of American history, looking the part with his "patriarchal full beard and flowing moustaches.

He was editor of the distinguished "American Nation" series 28 volumes, 1903-1918 and other series on American history, of many source books and guides for the study of American history, and, with Andrew C. McLaughlin, of the Cyclopedia of American Government 3 volumes, 1914. He became an enthusiastic trustee and supporter of the Roosevelt Memorial Association, and said that from the time of TR's death he had the idea of editing a Roosevelt cyclopedia.

The projected reference work would, Hart explained, "present in alphabetical arrangement extracts sufficiently numerous and comprehensive to display all the phases of Roosevelt's activities and opinions as expressed by him. What we are after is the crisp, sharp, biting sparks that flew from the Roosevelt brain. He was editor of the American Year Book, 1926-1932, edited a five-volume history of Massachusetts in 1927-1930, and worked as the official historian of the George Washington bicentennial commission in the 1920s and 1930s.

Hart had to postpone the cyclopedia, and asked the Association for research and clerical staff.

Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography

But the Executive Committee of the Roosevelt Memorial Association delayed appropriations for the cyclopedia, because the expense was "so great," and it was not until May of 1928 that a budget was approved for the cyclopedia, although the project had been publicly announced years before. Finally, in 1931 Hart presented a rough draft of the cyclopedia to Hagedorn.

But the book needed much more work. Ferleger, who graduated from Temple University in 1934, had been a Research Fellow at the Brookings Institute, and had taught at Princeton. He received a Ph. William Allen White 1868-1944the editor of the Emporia Gazette, Emporia, Kansas, a respected and beloved public figure, a trustee of the Association who had been a close friend of TR's, wrote a foreword for the book.

Champion of the Strenuous Life, came out in 1958. Roth prepared a revised edition in 1977. III Theodore Roosevelt, throughout his many-sided career, was a prolific writer on diverse subjects. He published two papers on birds while he was in college, and his first book, The Naval War of 1812, a five-hundred page scholarly work, came out in 1882, when TR was twenty-three.

TR's trilogy on his experiences in the West, Hunting Trips of a Ranchman 1885Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail 1888and The Wilderness Hunter 1893helped formulate the images of cowboy life and the old West that have become an important part of the American heritage. TR's later books on outdoor adventure and natural history, including African Game Trails 1910Through the Brazilian Wilderness 1914and A Book-Lover's Holidays in the Open 1916delighted the general public and won the respect of professional naturalists.

His essays, published over the years in Century, Scribner's, Outlookand other periodicals, covered a dazzling variety of topics, from poetry to polar exploration. Counting collections of speeches, essays, and state papers, Theodore Roosevelt produced over fifty volumes in his lifetime—and he lived sixty years. Abbott, who worked with TR when the former President was Contributing Editor of the Outlook magazine, once roughly estimated that Roosevelt published perhaps 2,500,000 words, and wrote a total of maybe 18,000,000 words when his letters are included in the count.

  1. American presidential election, 1912Results of the American presidential election, 1912Sources. Mowry puts it, to combine "Hamiltonian means with Jeffersonian ends.
  2. Roosevelt believed in living on the basis of "realizable ideals.
  3. On periphery and personal character matters I agreed, but I was not convinced by his core political views, especially his "ends justify the means" defense of government overreach and his overstepping the constitutional limits of his office. Cuddihy, publisher of Literary Digest, E.
  4. One of the first generation of professionally trained historians in the United States, a prolific author and editor of historical works, Albert Bushnell Hart became, as Samuel Eliot Morison says, "The Grand Old Man" of American history, looking the part with his "patriarchal full beard and flowing moustaches. But whatever one's view, the contents of the Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia deserve the attention of all as an important part of the American heritage.
  5. To overcome his physical weakness, he embraced a strenuous life. What we are after is the crisp, sharp, biting sparks that flew from the Roosevelt brain.

Certainly, TR left a prodigious legacy of words in addition to his other achievements. About 550,000 of those words are in the Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia. A guide or chart for the Scribner's Memorial and National editions is provided in the "Editors' Note" at the beginning of the Cyclopedia, listing the basic contents of each volume. Most of the quotations are taken from the Scribner's editions of the Works of Theodore Roosevelt, but approximately 380 quotations in the Cyclopedia, not counting excerpts from letters, are from articles, speeches, and other sources not included in the Scribner's editions.

Additionally, over forty recorded conversations are quoted, most of these not in the Scribner's editions. And the eight-volume Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, based on the Theodore Roosevelt Papers at the Library of Congress and other collections, came out in the 1950s, and therefore was not available to the editors. Only one unpublished letter is quoted in the Cyclopedia: TR to the Rev. Moir, October 10, 1898, pp.

Bishop, whose biography had been authorized by TR before the former President's death, had complete access to what became the collection of Theodore Roosevelt Papers at the Library of Congress. Over 670 quotations in the Cyclopedia are from letters by TR.

Roosevelt's views on the historical events of his era, such as "Spanish-American War," "Russo-Japanese War," "Panic of 1907" and "Election of 1916," are given. Institutions, groups, and organizations, such as the Methodist Church, Mugwumps, Y. Senate, Audubon Societies, and Progressive Party, are listed. Birds and animals—ousel, wapiti, elephant, mocking- bird, moose, and many others—are described in the words of the hunter-naturalist TR. Historical topics from before Roosevelt's era are covered, including the fall of the Roman Empire, the Mongol Invasions, the French Revolution, and the War of 1812.

Many of the entries in the Cyclopedia are general topics, like "citizenship," "experts in government," "ideals," "reading," "tolerance," "women in politics," and "scholarship. Unfortunately, the editors made no systematic attempt to trace or indicate the origin and first use of a term or phrase. The earliest use is often given, but not in all cases.

Theodore Roosevelt

This failure to include notes on the history of phrases and terms is a real a biography of theodore roosevelt an american politician author naturalist soldier explorer and hist in the Cyclopedia as a reference work. The editors were clearly more interested in presenting Roosevelt's thought than in producing a guide to familiar quotations, though most of the famous quotations were included in the book.

The quotations given are often lengthy, thereby preserving much of the original context, and providing an accurate view of Roosevelt's thinking.

Usually quotations on a topic are taken from a variety of sources over a period of many years, thus showing the development and the remarkable degree of continuity in TR's thought. In some cases, the quotations selected do not give the full scope of Roosevelt's opinions on a particular subject. But on most subjects an accurate, balanced, and full picture of TR's thinking is given.

For instance, the quotations on William Howard Taft show TR's changing views of a man who was at one time a close friend and associate and later a political opponent. Likewise, the coverage of the Panama Canal is thorough. Many of the remarks quoted are candid and colorful, and the private as well as the public Roosevelt is revealed in the Cyclopedia.

Anyone familiar with TR's words will probably regret that some particular quotations were not included in the Cyclopedia. But on the whole, the editors did an excellent job in selecting quotations that show the totality of the many-sided Roosevelt. The chief weaknesses of the Cyclopedia are, as noted, that the editors did not use the then unpublished letters by TR, and did not trace the roots or indicate the first uses of famous phrases and key concepts.

The strengths of the Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia are many. The choice of topics and subjects is almost exhaustive of the possibilities. The book is thoroughly cross-referenced.

The editors used a wide variety of sources, from speeches and state papers to recorded conversations and letters to family members, from little-known articles to Roosevelt's numerous books.

The quotations given are for the most part well-chosen, and care was taken to present views on a particular topic expressed over a wide span of time, and to give a full and accurate summary of Roosevelt's thought.

No attempt was made to tailor Roosevelt's views to fit the ideological fashions of later periods. The editors indeed accomplished their stated purpose: Roosevelt believed in living on the basis of "realizable ideals.

He believed that you found yourself and realized yourself in being involved with, rather than detached from, institutions, other people, causes, jobs, political parties, movements, and everyday life. TR admired, and he was, "the man who is actually in the arena. But he knew that the realization of even "realizable ideals" was far from easy, either in public or private life, and he was well aware that not every story or human endeavor had a happy ending.

He saw much of human existence as a mystery. Wells said that Theodore Roosevelt "sticks in my mind. But Roosevelt, through word and by the teaching example of deed, outlined for Americans of his own time and for posterity some of the basic principles of modern democracy. He believed in responsible citizenship, and in a government responsive to the needs of the people. He believed in nationalism, because in nationalism he saw the potential to overcome the centrifugal pulls of parochialism, special interests, and selfish individualism, and the means to bring coherence, purpose, and progress to a pluralistic country.

Theodore Roosevelt (Reign of Roosevelt)

He believed in institutions, organizations, political parties, and governmental agencies and powers, because he saw the need for collective action, control, and direction in a complex world. But TR viewed the individual as the source of success for any collective endeavor, and the character of the individual as the determining factor in the worth and survival of society. The Square Deal or New Nationalism was a synthesis of the two chief and antagonistic philosophies in American political history—the philosophies of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson.

Hamiltonians believed in nationalism and a strong, activist federal government led by the President. Jeffersonians in contrast favored states' rights, laissez-faire in economics, and the dominance of Congress within a weak federal government. Hamiltonians tended to be elitist and favor business interests, while the Jeffersonians preached democracy and championed the common man.

Theodore Roosevelt's solution to the problems of modern America was, as the historian George E.