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A biography of richard milhous nixon 37th president of the united states of america

Nixon and his national security adviser, Henry Kissinger, believed that American power relative to that of other nations had declined to the point where a fundamental reorientation was necessary.

They sought improved relations with the Soviet Union to make… Early life and congressional career Richard Nixon was the second of five children born to Frank Nixon, a service station owner and grocer, and Hannah Milhous Nixon, whose devout Quakerism would exert a strong influence on her son.

The couple married in 1940. Following his return to civilian life in 1946, he was elected to the U. In dramatic testimony before the committee, Whittaker Chambersa journalist and former spy, claimed that in 1937 Hiss had given him classified State Department papers for transmission to a Soviet agent.

Hiss vehemently denied the charge but was later convicted of perjury. Vice presidency At the Republican convention in 1952Nixon won nomination as vice president on a ticket with Dwight D. Eisenhowerlargely because of his anticommunist credentials but also because Republicans thought he could draw valuable support in the West.

Stevenson and John Sparkman, with just under 34 million popular votes to their 27. Stock footage courtesy The WPA Film Library During his two terms as vice president, Nixon campaigned actively for Republican candidates but otherwise did not assume significant responsibilities.

In 1955—57 Eisenhower suffered a series of serious illnesses, including a heart attackan attack of ileitis, and a stroke. While Eisenhower was incapacitated, Nixon was called on to chair several cabinet sessions and National Security Council meetings, though real power lay in a close circle of Eisenhower advisers, from which Nixon had always been excluded. After his stroke, Eisenhower formalized an agreement with Nixon on the powers and responsibilities of the vice president in the event of presidential disability; the agreement was accepted by later administrations until the adoption of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the U.

Eisenhower left and Richard M. Courtesy of the Dwight D. Nixon and his wife, Pat, receiving flowers from a young girl during a visit to South Korea in 1953.

The campaign was memorable for an unprecedented series of four televised debates between the two candidates. Although Nixon performed well rhetorically, Kennedy managed to convey an appealing image of youthfulness, energy, and physical poise, which convinced many that he had won the debates.

In the closest presidential contest since Grover Cleveland defeated James G. Blaine in 1884, Nixon lost to Kennedy by fewer than 120,000 popular votes. Citing irregularities in Illinois and Texas, many observers questioned whether Kennedy had legally won those states, and some prominent Republicans—including Eisenhower—even urged Nixon to contest the results.

He chose not to, however, declaring that The televised debate between presidential candidates John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon was a pivotal moment in the 1960 election and a turning point in both presidential politics and television history. Electoral and popular vote totals based on data from the Office of the Clerk of the U.

I could think of no worse example for nations abroad, who for the first time were trying to put free electoral procedures into effect, than that of the United States wrangling over the results of our presidential election, and even suggesting that the presidency itself could be stolen by thievery at the ballot box. Nixon then retired to private life in California, where he wrote a best-selling book, Six Crises 1961. In 1962 he reluctantly decided to run for governor of California but lost to incumbent Democrat Edmund G.

Nixon talking to the press after losing the 1962 California gubernatorial race.

  • In order to reduce inflation he initially tried to restrict federal spending, but beginning in 1971 his budget proposals contained deficits of several billion dollars, the largest in American history up to that time;
  • Following a series of low-level diplomatic contacts in 1970 and the lifting of U.

Strom Thurmond of South Carolina. Humphrey, who as Lyndon B. Had he taken this step earlier, Humphrey might have won the election, as polls showed him gaining rapidly on Nixon in the final days of the campaign. Nixon won the election by a narrow margin, 31. Nixon's 1968 presidential campaign. American presidential election, 1968Results of the American presidential election, 1968Sources: Nixon right accepting the Republican Party's U.

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At left is Gerald R. Ford, then Republican leader of the House of Representatives.

AP Nixon, Richard M. Nixon, delivering his First Inaugural Address, January 20, 1969.

Although Nixon opposed school busing and delayed taking action on desegregation until federal court orders forced his hand, his administration drastically reduced the percentage of African American students attending all-black schools.

In addition, funding for many federal civil rights agencies, in particular the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOCwas substantially increased while Nixon was in office.

In order to reduce inflation he initially tried to restrict federal spending, but beginning in 1971 his budget proposals contained deficits of several billion dollars, the largest in American history up to that time. These policies produced temporary improvements in the economy by the end of 1972, but, once price and wage controls were lifted, inflation returned with a vengeancereaching 8. At the same time, however, Nixon resumed the bombing of North Vietnam suspended by President Johnson in October 1968 and expanded the air and ground war to neighbouring Cambodia and Laos.

Early life and congressional career

In the spring of 1970, U. Richard Nixon speaking to the nation on the efforts to negotiate a peace settlement in Vietnam, 1970.

Vietnam War; Nixon, Richard M. Nixon, announcing the end of the Vietnam War, January 23, 1973. It included an immediate cease-fire, the withdrawal of all American military personnel, the release of all prisoners of war, and an international force to keep the peace. For their work on the accord, Kissinger and Tho were awarded the 1973 Nobel Prize for Peace though Tho declined the honour. Following a series of low-level diplomatic contacts in 1970 and the lifting of U.

Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai left and U. Nixon in China, February 1972. By 1971 the Soviets were more amenable to improved relations with the United States, and in May 1972 Nixon paid a state visit to Moscow to sign 10 formal agreements, the most important of which were the nuclear arms limitation treaties known as SALT I based on the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks conducted between the United States and the Soviet Union beginning in 1969 and a memorandum, the Basic Principles of U.

Salvador Allendeelected in 1970. In September 1973 Allende was overthrown in a military coup led by army commander in chief Gen. Watergate and other scandals Renominated with Agnew in 1972Nixon defeated his Democratic challenger, liberal Sen. McGovernin one of the largest landslide victories in the history of American presidential elections: Despite his resounding victory, Nixon would soon be forced to resign in disgrace in the worst political scandal in United States history.

American presidential election, 1972Results of the American presidential election, 1972Sources: The Watergate scandal stemmed from illegal activities by Nixon and his aides related to the burglary and wiretapping of the national headquarters of the Democratic Party at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.

Nixon also obstructed the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI in its inquiry and authorized secret cash payments to the Watergate burglars in an effort to prevent them from implicating the administration. Several major newspapers investigated the possible involvement of the White House in the burglary. Mark Felta top-ranking FBI official at the time of the investigation, revealed himself as the informant in 2005.

Sam Ervin —was established to look into the Watergate affair. Nixon on April 30, 1973. When the tapes were subpoenaed by Archibald Coxthe special prosecutor appointed to investigate the Watergate affair, Nixon refused to comply, offering to provide summary transcripts instead.

Cox rejected the offer. Then, in a series of episodes that came to be known as the Saturday Night MassacreNixon ordered Attorney General Elliot Richardson to fire Cox, and Richardson resigned rather than comply.

Cox was finally removed by Solicitor General Robert Borkthough a federal district court subsequently ruled the action illegal. Watergate Scandal; Nixon, Richard M. Nixon, announcing that he would release tapes of White House conversations regarding the Watergate Scandal, November 17, 1973. Public Domain Amid calls for his impeachment, Nixon agreed to the appointment of another special prosecutor, Leon Jaworskiand promised that he would not fire him without congressional consent.

  • Nixon, delivering his First Inaugural Address, January 20, 1969;
  • Nixon right accepting the Republican Party's U;
  • While Eisenhower was incapacitated, Nixon was called on to chair several cabinet sessions and National Security Council meetings, though real power lay in a close circle of Eisenhower advisers, from which Nixon had always been excluded;
  • Nixon giving a farewell speech at the White House, with his daughter Tricia in the background, August 8, 1974;
  • Nixon on April 30, 1973.

By that time the House Judiciary Committee had already voted to recommend three articles of impeachment, relating to obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and failure to comply with congressional subpoenas. The smoking gun had finally been found. Public Domain Nixon, Richard M.

Nixon addressing the American people regarding the release and content of transcripts of the Watergate tapes recordings of conversations in the president's offices1974. Nixon, announcing his resignation from the presidency, August 8, 1974. Public Domain Faced with the near-certain prospect of impeachment by the House and conviction in the Senate, Nixon announced his resignation on the evening of August 8, 1974, effective at noon the next day.

  1. In the spring of 1970, U.
  2. Nixon right accepting the Republican Party's U. Richard Nixon speaking to the nation on the efforts to negotiate a peace settlement in Vietnam, 1970.
  3. Electoral and popular vote totals based on data from the Office of the Clerk of the U. Kennedy and Richard M.

He was succeeded by Gerald Fordwhom he had appointed vice president in 1973 after Agnew resigned his office amid charges of having committed bribery, extortion, and tax evasion during his tenure as governor of Maryland. Nixon was pardoned by President Ford on September 8, 1974. Nixon giving a farewell speech at the White House, with his daughter Tricia in the background, August 8, 1974.

Richard Nixon

The Memoirs of Richard Nixon 1978 and several books on international affairs and American foreign policymodestly rehabilitating his public reputation and earning a role as an elder statesman and foreign-policy expert.

Nixon spent his last years campaigning for American political support and financial aid for Russia and the other former Soviet republics. In ceremonies after his death, Pres. Bill Clinton and other dignitaries praised him for his diplomatic achievements.

He was buried beside his wife at his birthplace. Cabinet of President Nixon The table provides a list of cabinet members in the administration of Pres.

  1. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina.
  2. The campaign was memorable for an unprecedented series of four televised debates between the two candidates.
  3. Mark Felt , a top-ranking FBI official at the time of the investigation, revealed himself as the informant in 2005. Despite his resounding victory, Nixon would soon be forced to resign in disgrace in the worst political scandal in United States history.

Cabinet of President Richard M. Nixon January 20, 1969—January 20, 1973 Term 1 State.