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A biography of galileo galilei and his contribution to science

Galileo became an accomplished lutenist himself and would have learned early from his father a scepticism for established authority, [18] the value of well-measured or quantified experimentation, an appreciation for a periodic or musical measure of time or rhythm, as well as the results expected from a combination of mathematics and experiment.

Three of Galileo's five siblings survived infancy. The youngest, Michelangelo or Michelagnoloalso became a noted lutenist and composer although he contributed to financial burdens during Galileo's young adulthood. Michelangelo was unable to contribute his fair share of their father's promised dowries to their brothers-in-law, who would later attempt to seek legal remedies for payments due.

Michelangelo would also occasionally have to borrow funds from Galileo to support his musical endeavours and excursions. These financial burdens may have contributed to Galileo's early desire to develop inventions that would bring him additional income. When Galileo Galilei was eight, his family moved to Florencebut he was left with Jacopo Borghini for two years.

The Italian male given name "Galileo" and thence the surname "Galilei" derives from the Latin "Galilaeus", meaning "of Galilee ", a biblically significant region in Northern Israel. In it he made a point of quoting Acts 1: She is buried with him in his tomb in the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence.

Despite being a genuinely pious Roman Catholic, [27] Galileo fathered three children out of wedlock with Marina Gamba. They had two daughters, Virginia born in 1600 and Livia born in 1601and a son, Vincenzo born in 1606. Both girls were accepted by the convent of San Matteo in Arcetri and remained there for the rest of their lives.

Livia took the name Sister Arcangela and was ill for most of her life. Vincenzo was later legitimised as the legal heir of Galileo and married Sestilia Bocchineri. To him, it seemed, by comparison with his heartbeat, that the chandelier took the same amount of time to swing back and forth, no matter how far it was swinging. When he returned home, he set up two pendulums of equal length and swung one with a large sweep and the other with a small sweep and found that they kept time together.

It was not until the work of Christiaan Huygensalmost one hundred years later, that the tautochrone nature of a swinging pendulum was used to create an accurate timepiece. However, after accidentally attending a a biography of galileo galilei and his contribution to science on geometry, he talked his reluctant father into letting him study mathematics and natural philosophy instead of medicine.

Galileo also studied disegno, a term encompassing fine art, and, in 1588, obtained the position of instructor in the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno in Florence, teaching perspective and chiaroscuro.

Being inspired by the artistic tradition of the city and the works of the Renaissance artists, Galileo acquired an aesthetic mentality. While a young teacher at the Accademia, he began a lifelong friendship with the Florentine painter Cigoliwho included Galileo's lunar observations in one of his paintings. In 1591, his father died, and he was entrusted with the care of his younger brother Michelagnolo. In 1592, he moved to the University of Padua where he taught geometry, mechanicsand astronomy until 1610.

  • To support the theory of heliocentrism, Galileo had the mathematical proofs of Copernicus but also new proofs from the science of astronomy;
  • Sciencing Video Vault An Improved Telescope While he did not invent the telescope, the enhancements Galileo made to original Dutch versions of the instrument enabled him to make new empirical discoveries;
  • But Galileo wasn't convinced;
  • But the tide in Rome was turning against the Copernican theory, and in 1615, when the cleric Paolo Antonio Foscarini c.

His multiple interests included the study of astrologywhich at the time was a discipline tied to the studies of mathematics and astronomy. Portrait by Leoni Cardinal Bellarmine had written in 1615 that the Copernican system could not be defended without "a true physical demonstration that the sun does not circle the earth but the earth circles the sun". For Galileo, the tides were caused by the sloshing back and forth of water in the seas as a point on the Earth's surface sped up and slowed down because of the Earth's rotation on its axis and revolution around the Sun.

Galileo Galilei's Invention & Contributions

He circulated his first account of the tides in 1616, addressed to Cardinal Orsini. As a general account of the cause of tides, however, his theory was a failure. If this theory were correct, there would be only one high tide per day.

Galileo and his contemporaries were aware of this inadequacy because there are two daily high tides at Venice instead of one, about twelve hours apart. Galileo dismissed this anomaly as the result of several secondary causes including the shape of the sea, its depth, and other factors. It began as a dispute over the nature of comets, but by the time Galileo had published The Assayer Il Saggiatore in 1623, his last salvo in the dispute, it had become a much wider controversy over the very nature of science itself.

Because The Assayer contains such a wealth of Galileo's ideas on how science should be practised, it has been referred to as his scientific manifesto. Grassi concluded that the comet was a fiery body which had moved along a segment of a great circle at a constant distance from the earth, [48] and since it moved in the sky more slowly than the moon, it must be farther away than the moon. Grassi's arguments and conclusions were criticised in a subsequent article, Discourse on Comets[49] published under the name of one of Galileo's disciples, a Florentine lawyer named Mario Guiduccialthough it had been largely written by Galileo himself.

In its opening passage, Galileo and Guiducci's Discourse gratuitously insulted the Jesuit Christopher Scheiner[52] and various uncomplimentary remarks about the professors of the Collegio Romano were scattered throughout the work. The Assayer was Galileo's devastating reply to the Astronomical Balance. Scientific opposition came from Tycho Brahe and others and arose from the fact that, if heliocentrism were true, an annual stellar parallax should be observed, though none was.

Copernicus and Aristarchus had correctly postulated that parallax was negligible because the stars were so distant.

  • For Galileo, the tides were caused by the sloshing back and forth of water in the seas as a point on the Earth's surface sped up and slowed down because of the Earth's rotation on its axis and revolution around the Sun;
  • His observations of the satellites of Jupiter caused a revolution in astronomy;
  • However, after accidentally attending a lecture on geometry, he talked his reluctant father into letting him study mathematics and natural philosophy instead of medicine;
  • His research — including his observations of the phases of Venus and the fact that Jupiter boasted moons that didn't orbit Earth — supported the Copernican system, which correctly stated that the Earth and other planets circle the sun;
  • This book is written in the mathematical language;
  • Portrait by Leoni Cardinal Bellarmine had written in 1615 that the Copernican system could not be defended without "a true physical demonstration that the sun does not circle the earth but the earth circles the sun".

However, Brahe had countered that, since stars appeared to have measurable size, if the stars were that distant, they would be gigantic, and in fact far larger than the Sun or any other celestial body. In Brahe's system, by contrast, the stars were a little more distant than Saturn, and the Sun and stars were comparable in size. In December 1613, the Grand Duchess Christina of Florence confronted one of Galileo's friends and followers, Benedetto Castelliwith biblical objections to the motion of the earth.

According to Maurice Finocchiaro, this was done in a friendly and gracious manner, out of curiosity. A biography of galileo galilei and his contribution to science by this incident, Galileo wrote a letter to Castelli in which he argued that heliocentrism was actually not contrary to biblical texts, and that the bible was an authority on faith and morals, not on science. This letter was not published, but circulated widely. At the start of 1616, Monsignor Francesco Ingoli initiated a debate with Galileo, sending him an essay disputing the Copernican system.

Galileo later stated that he believed this essay to have been instrumental in the action against Copernicanism that followed. It borrowed primarily from the arguments of Tycho Brahe, and it notedly mentioned Brahe's argument that heliocentrism required the stars to be much larger than the Sun. Ingoli wrote that the great distance to the stars in the heliocentric theory "clearly proves.

On 26 February, Galileo was called to Bellarmine's residence and ordered: Barberini was a friend and admirer of Galileo, and had opposed the condemnation of Galileo in 1616. Galileo's resulting book, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systemswas published in 1632, with formal authorization from the Inquisition and papal permission. He made another request, that his own views on the matter be included in Galileo's book.

Only the latter of those requests was fulfilled by Galileo. Whether unknowingly or deliberately, Simplicio, the defender of the Aristotelian geocentric view in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, was often caught in his own errors and sometimes came across as a fool.

Indeed, although Galileo states in the preface of his book that the character is named after a famous Aristotelian philosopher Simplicius in Latin, "Simplicio" in Italianthe name "Simplicio" in Italian also has the connotation of "simpleton". Most historians agree Galileo did not act out of malice and felt blindsided by the reaction to his book. Galileo had alienated one of his biggest and most powerful supporters, the Pope, and was called to Rome to defend his writings [84] in September 1632.

He finally arrived in February 1633 and was brought before inquisitor Vincenzo Maculani to be charged. Throughout his trial, Galileo steadfastly maintained that since 1616 he had faithfully kept his promise not to hold any of the condemned opinions, and initially he denied even defending them. However, he was eventually persuaded to admit that, contrary to his true intention, a reader of his Dialogue could well have obtained the impression that it was intended to be a defence of Copernicanism.

In view of Galileo's rather implausible denial that he had ever held Copernican ideas after 1616 or ever intended to defend them in the Dialogue, his final interrogation, in July 1633, concluded with his being threatened with torture if he did not tell the truth, but he maintained his denial despite the threat. It was in three essential parts: Galileo was found "vehemently suspect of heresy", namely of having held the opinions that the Sun lies motionless at the centre of the universe, that the Earth is not at its centre and moves, and that one may hold and defend an opinion as probable after it has been declared contrary to Holy Scripture.

He was required to "abjure, curse and detest" those opinions. His offending Dialogue was banned; and in an action not announced at the trial, publication of any of his works was forbidden, including any he might write in the future. The earliest known written account of the legend dates to a century after his death, but Stillman Drake writes "there is no doubt now that the famous words were already attributed to Galileo before his death".

Galileo was ordered to read the seven penitential psalms once a week for the next three years. However, his daughter Maria Celeste relieved him of the burden after securing ecclesiastical permission to take it upon herself. Here he summarised work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materialspublished in Holland to avoid the censor.

Galileo Galilei

This book has received high praise from Albert Einstein. He went completely blind in 1638 and was suffering from a painful hernia and insomniaso he was permitted to travel to Florence for medical advice. In this context, Sobel argues that the problem of Galileo was presented to the pope by court insiders and enemies of Galileo.

Having been accused of weakness in defending the church, Urban reacted against Galileo out of anger and fear. Galileo's father, Vincenzo Galileia lutenist and music theorist, had performed experiments establishing perhaps the oldest known non-linear relation in physics: Thus, a limited amount of mathematics had long related music and physical science, and young Galileo could see his own father's observations expand on that tradition.

In The Assayerhe wrote "Philosophy is written in this grand book, the universe. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures.

He was often willing to change his views in accordance with observation. In order to perform his experiments, Galileo had to set up standards of length and time, so that measurements made on different days and in different laboratories could be compared in a reproducible fashion. This provided a reliable foundation on which to confirm mathematical laws using inductive reasoning.

Galileo showed a modern appreciation for the proper relationship between mathematics, theoretical physics, and experimental physics. He understood the parabolaboth in terms of conic sections and in a biography of galileo galilei and his contribution to science of the ordinate y varying as the square of the abscissa x.

Galilei further asserted that the parabola was the theoretically ideal trajectory of a uniformly accelerated projectile in the absence of air resistance or other disturbances. He conceded that there are limits to the validity of this theory, noting on theoretical grounds that a projectile trajectory of a size comparable to that of the Earth could not possibly be a parabola, [106] but he nevertheless maintained that for distances up to the range of the artillery of his day, the deviation of a projectile's trajectory from a parabola would be only very slight.

This observation upset the notion that all celestial bodies must revolve around the Earth. Galileo published a full description in Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610 The phases of Venusobserved by Galileo in 1610 Based only on uncertain descriptions of the first practical telescope which Hans Lippershey tried to patent in the Netherlands in 1608, [108] Galileo, in the following year, made a telescope with about 3x magnification.

He later made improved versions with up to about 30x magnification. He could also use it to observe the sky; for a time he was one of those who could construct telescopes good enough for that purpose. On 25 August 1609, he demonstrated one of his early telescopes, with a magnification of about 8 or 9, to Venetian lawmakers. His telescopes were also a profitable sideline for Galileo, who sold them to merchants who found them useful both at sea and as items of trade.

He published his initial telescopic astronomical observations in March 1610 in a brief treatise entitled Sidereus Nuncius Starry Messenger.

Ottavio Brenzoni's letter of 15 January 1605 to Galileo brought the 1572 supernova and the less bright nova of 1601 to Galileo's notice. Galileo observed and discussed Kepler's supernova in 1604. Since these new stars displayed no detectable diurnal parallaxGalileo concluded that they were distant stars, and, therefore, disproved the Aristotelian belief in the immutability of the heavens. On 10 January, Galileo noted that one of them had disappeared, an observation which he attributed to its being hidden behind Jupiter.

Within a few days, he concluded that they were orbiting Jupiter: He discovered the fourth on 13 January.